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GSR 2015

201 02 RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT saw completion of a 1 MW facility in 2014 that supplies electricity to an internal grid at Nofa Equestrian Resort, from Iain Wilson, “Plans for World’s Largest CPV Plant Scrapped Due to Australia’s Wavering Renewables Commitment,” Renewable Energy World, 18 August 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/ article/2014/08/plans-for-worlds-largest-cpv-plant-scrapped- due-to-australias-wavering-renewables-committment; at least two small projects were completed in Portugal during 2014, from Soitec, “Soitec and Its Partners Inaugurate a 1.29 MWp CPV Power Plant in Portugal,” press release (Bernin, France: 9 October 2014), http://www.soitec.com/en/news/press-releases/ soitec-and-its-partners-inaugurate-a-1-29-mwp-cpv-power- plant-in-portugal-1546/; and from CPV Consortium, “Evora Landfill,” updated 17 March 2015, http://cpvconsortium.org/ projects/27?from_year=2014&project_type=1&status=2. Soitec alone has systems operating in more than 20 countries, from Fabio Mondini de Focatiis, cited in Katherine Steiner Dicks, “Hami to Be Home to One of Asia’s Largest CPV Plants,” PV Insider, 11 November 2014, http://news.pv-insider.com/concentrated-pv/ hami-be-home-one-asia%E2%80%99s-largest-cpv-plants; Chile from Soitec, “Minera El Tesoro Mining Group and Soitec Establish CPV Solar-Energy Pilot Plant for Mining Operation in Chile,” press release (Bernin, France and Santiago, Chile: 27 May 2013), http:// www.soitec.com/en/news/press-releases/minera-el-tesoro- mining-group-and-soitec-establish-cpv-solar-energy-pilot-plant- for-mining-operation-in-chile-1304/; Namibia from Soitec, “Soitec Connects Solar-Power Demonstration Plant in Namibia,” press release (Bernin, France: 10 June 2013), http://www.soitec.com/en/ news/press-releases/soitec-connects-solar-power-demonstration- plant-in-namibia-1317/. China had the world’s largest plants, a 60 MW project completed in 2013 and a 50 MW plant that came on line in 2012, from Suncore, “Case Studies—Project: Golmud 60 MW; Project: Golmud 50 MW,” http://suncoreus.com/case- studies/, viewed 8 May 2015. 83 Figure of 70 MW and South Africa from Philipps et al., op. cit. note 81, pp. 5, 10; South Africa’s plant also from Mark Osborne, “Soitec to Scale Back US CPV Operations After 150MW Project Falters,” PV-Tech, 23 December 2014, http://www.pv-tech.org/ news/soitec_to_scale_back_us_cpv_operations_after_150mw_ project_falters. 84 Philipps et al., op. cit. note 81, p. 5. More than more than 90% of capacity was high-concentration PV with two-axis tracking, from idem, p. 6. 85 Large plants under construction from Philipps et al., op. cit. note 81, p. 10; suspended from Wilson, op. cit. note 82; scrapped from Osborne, op. cit. note 83. 86 Italy, Greece, and Germany estimated based on year-end solar PV capacity in each country, and sourced from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2. Solar PV accounted for about 6% of Germany’s gross national electricity consumption in 2014, per AG Energiebilanzen e.V., op. cit. note 52. Some states and countries saw much higher daily peaks during 2014. See, for example: “California Electric Grid Sets Solar Generation Record,” Reuters, 10 March 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/10/ utilities-california-solar-idUSL2N0M724F20140310; Thomas Gerke, “Sunday, Solar Sunday—Germany’s July 7 Solar Power Record In-Depth,” Clean Technica, 12 July 2013, http:// cleantechnica.com/2013/07/12/sunday-solar-sunday-germany- solar-power-record-in-depth/; Ian Clover, “Solar Power Saves the Day During Australia’s Record Heatwave,” PV Magazine, 17 January 2014, http://www.pv-magazine.com/news/ details/beitrag/solar-power-saves-the-day-during-australias- record-heatwave_100013970/; Giles Parkinson, “Graph of the Day: Solar Reaches 9.1% of Demand in France,” Renew Economy, 14 April 2015, http://reneweconomy.com.au/2015/ graph-of-the-day-solar-reaches-9-1-of-demand-in-france-87521. 87 Estimates of 3.5% of electricity demand in Europe and 7% of peak electricity demand based on capacity in operation at year’s end, from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2; 0.3% in 2008 from Gaëtan Masson, “Editorial: 2013, A Qualified Record-year for Photovoltaics,” EPIA, March 2014, http://www.epia.org/news/news/?page=1#news-278. At least 200 TWh is based on capacity in operation at the end of 2014, from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 2, p. 14. At least 19 countries had enough PV to produce at least 1% of their electricity demand by year’s end, from idem; up from 15 countries at the end of 2013, from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 6. 88 Masson, op. cit. note 2. See also Shyam Mehta, “5 Crucial Solar Manufacturing Stats for 2014,” Greentech Media, 17 March 2014, http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/ Five-Crucial-Solar-Manufacturing-Stats-for-2014-GTM-Research. 89 Ibid. 90 Focusing on markets elsewhere from Alexandra S. Mebane, “An In-Depth Interview with JinkoSolar’s CSO & Head of Emerging Markets: Arturo Herrero,” Solar Plaza, 20 February 2015, http://www.solarplaza.com/article/an-in-depth-interview-with- jinkosolars-cso-head-of; shipments to all markets outside of Europe were on the rise by early 2014, from Mehta, op. cit. note 88. Some companies had difficulties while SolarWorld (Germany) was fine; in general, however, 2014 was difficult for European manufacturers, who did not benefit from growing international markets, from Masson, op. cit. note 2. 91 See, for example, Oscar de la Rubia, Institute for Concentration Photovoltaics Systems, Spain, cited in “CPV’s Golden Opportunity in the MENA Region,” Solar GCC Alliance, 11 February 2015, http:// www.solargcc.com/cpvs-golden-opportunity-in-the-mena-region/. Since 2008, installed prices for systems with crystalline silicon (C-Si) modules have fallen more substantially than those with thin-film modules, from Galen Barbose, Samantha Weaver, and Naïm Darghouth, Tracking the Sun VII: An Historical Summary of the Installed Price of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2013 (Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, September 2014), http://eetd.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/lbnl-6858e.pdf. 92 See, for example: Xiaolu Wang and Marlies Huijbers, “Is a Chinese Sun Powering Western Solar Energy Economies?” Renewable Energy World, 28 February 2014, http://www. renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/02/ is-a-chinese-sun-powering-western-solar-energy-economies; “Asia Report: US-Taiwan Solar Trade Dispute Forges On,” Renewable Energy World, 17 February 2014, http://www. renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/02/ asia-report-us-taiwan-solar-trade-dispute-forges-on; Jennifer Runyon, “Big News: More Tariffs on Solar Panels from China,” Renewable Energy World, 17 December 2015, http://www. renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/12/ big-news-more-tariffs-on-solar-panels-from-china; Justin Doom, “Canada Imposes Tariff on Imported Chinese Solar Equipment,” Renewable Energy World, 9 March 2015, http:// www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2015/03/ canada-imposes-tariff-on-imported-chinese-solar-equipment. 93 GTM Research, PV Pulse, March 2015. The average price was down over the year, but lowest prices were up, from Masson, op. cit. note 2. See also pvXchange, http://pvxchange.com/default. aspx?langTag=en-GB, viewed 30 March 2015. 94 GTM Research, op. cit. note 93; demand below expectations in China also from Masson, op. cit. note 3. 95 Installed costs differ significantly from place to place, driven not only by hardware (such as module) costs but also soft costs (system design, permits, labour, etc.). See, for example, B. Friedman, R. Margolis, and J. Seel, Comparing Photovoltaic (PV) Costs and Deployment Drivers in the Japanese and U.S. Residential and Commercial Markets (Golden, CO: NREL, June 2014), http:// www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14osti/60360.pdf; and Barbose, Weaver, and Darghouth, op. cit. note 91. Higher in the United States based on research by Rocky Mountain Institute (Colorado), cited in Charles Thurston, “Intersolar 2014 Satiates PV Thrill Seekers,” Renewable Energy World, 16 July 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld. com/rea/news/article/2014/07/intersolar-2014-satiates-pv-thrill- seekers; from Masson, op. cit. note 2; and from FS-UNEP Centre/ BNEF, op. cit. note 2, Chapter 6. US installed prices are high compared with many other major international markets, despite the fact that hardware costs are fairly similar across countries, from David Feldman et al, “Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections, 2014 Edition,” SunShot, US Department of Energy, 22 September 2014, slide 24, http://emp.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/presentation_0.pdf. 96 As of 2013, the cost per MWh of rooftop solar was below retail electricity prices in several countries, including Australia, Brazil, Denmark, Germany, and Italy, from Frankfurt School–UNEP Centre and BNEF, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2014 (Frankfurt: 2014), p. 43. Levelised costs of generation for crystalline silicon PV systems fell 53% between 2009 and early 2014, per idem, p. 36. Solar PV in 2013 was competitive without subsidies in at least 19 markets (in 15 countries), including several countries in Latin America, Europe, Asia, and some US states, per Deutsche Bank Markets Research, “2014 Outlook: Let the Second Gold Rush Begin,” Industry Update, 6 January 2014, pp. 2, 4, 17. In Germany and Italy, the retail price of electricity for some consumer segments is higher than solar PV generation costs, from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 6, p. 73. Solar PV is competitive with fossil fuels and onshore wind in Germany, from Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Current and Future Cost of Photovoltaics: Long-term Scenarios for Market Development, System Prices and LCOE of Utility-Scale PV Systems (Berlin: February 2015), produced for Agora Energiewende, p. 6, http://www.agora-energiewende. BACK

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