Renewables 2016 Global Status Report

Renewables 2016
Global Status Report


This report was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with a global network of research partners. Financing was provided by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the Government of South Africa, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Bank Group. A large share of the research for this report was conducted on a voluntary basis.

The UN Secretary-General’s initiative Sustainable Energy for All mobilises global action to achieve universal access to modern energy services, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency and double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030. REN21’s Renewables 2016 Global Status Report contributes to this initiative by demonstrating the role of renewables in increasing energy access. A chapter on distributed renewable energy – based on input from local experts primarily from developing countries – illustrates how renewables are providing needed energy services and contributing to a better quality of life through the use of modern cooking, heating/cooling and electricity technologies. REN21 is working closely with the SE4All initiative towards achieving the three objectives of the Decade for Sustainable Energy for All (2014–2024).



Janet L. Sawin,
Lead Author and Content Editor (Sunna Research)

Kristin Seyboth (KMS Research and Consulting)
Freyr Sverrisson (Sunna Research)


Rana Adib
Hannah E. Murdock


Fabiani Appavou

Adam Brown

Bärbel Epp (solrico)

Anna Leidreiter (World Future Council – WFC)

Christine Lins (REN21 Secretariat)

Hannah E. Murdock (REN21 Secretariat)

Evan Musolino

Ksenia Petrichenko, Timothy C. Farrell, Thomas Thorsch Krader,
Aristeidis Tsakiris (Copenhagen Centre on Energy Efficiency)

Janet L. Sawin (Sunna Research)

Kristin Seyboth (KMS Research and Consulting)

Jonathan Skeen

Benjamin Sovacool (Aarhus University/University of Sussex)

Freyr Sverrisson (Sunna Research)


Adam Brown


Stefanie E. Di Domenico, Daniele Kielmanowicz (REN21 Secretariat)

Aarth Saraph (United Nations Environment Programme – UNEP)


Laura E. Williamson, Rashmi Jawahar (REN21 Secretariat)


Lisa Mastny, Editor Werbeagentur GmbH, Design


REN21 Secretariat, Paris, France


Eric Martinot (Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies – ISEP)

Note: Some individuals have contributed in more than one way to this report. To avoid listing contributors multiple times, they have been added to the group where they provided the most information. In most cases, the lead country, regional and topical contributors also participated in the Global Status Report (GSR) review and validation process.


Rabia Ferroukhi
(International Renewable Energy
Agency – IRENA)

Martin Hullin (REN21 Secretariat)

Michael Renner (Worldwatch Institute)

Michael Taylor (IRENA)


Asia and Pacific

Maria-Jose Poddey (GIZ)

Central Africa

Fabrice Fouodji Toche
(Global Village Cameroon)

Central and Eastern Europe

Alexander Antonenko, Elisa Asmelash, Katarina Uherova Hasbani,
Andriy Mitsay, Radovan Nikčević
(Revelle Group)

Eastern and Southern Africa

Wilkista Akinyi, Mark Hankins, Allan Kinuthia, Karin Sosis (African Solar Designs); Joseph Ngwawi (Southern African Research and Documentation Centre – SARDC)


Dennis Akande (ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency – ECREEE)

Latin America and Caribbean

Gonzalo Bravo (Fundación Bariloche); Lucas Furlano (Fundación Bariloche);
Peter Krenz (GIZ); Detlef Loy (Loy
Energy Consulting)

Middle East and North Africa

Tarek Abdul Razek, Akram Almohamadi, Mohamad Mahgoub (Regional Center
for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency – RCREEE)


Biomass Energy

Helena Chum (NREL); Heinz Kopetz, Bharadwaj Kummamuru (World Bioenergy Association); Julia Muench (Fachverband Biogas e.V.); Patrick Lamers (Idaho National Laboratory)

Community Energy

Claire Haggett (University of Edinburgh); Ansgar Kiene (Greenpeace); Craig Morris (Petite Planète); Yacob Mulugetta (University College London); Sixbert Mwanga (Climate Action Network Tanzania);
Ruth Rabinowitz (MamaEarth);
Ayla Reith (Dimagi); Anne Schiffer (Friends of the Earth Scotland); Mohamed Y. Sokona (GIZ/ECREEE); Youba Sokona (IIED); Ibrahim Togola (Mali Folkecenter / Citizens United for Renewable Energy and Sustainability); Tineke van der Schoor (Hanzehogeschool); Dirk Vansintjan (; Gordon Walker (Lancaster Environment Centre); Siward Zomer (ODE Decentraal)

Concentrating Solar Thermal Power

Luis Crespo Rodríguez (European Solar Thermal Electricity Association); Christian Gertig

Distributed Renewable Energy for Energy Access

Jerry Abuga (GVEP International); Berenice Acevedo (VIOGAZ S.A.); Jiwan Acharya (Asian Development Bank – ADB); Emmanuel Ackom (UNEP DTU Partnership; Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development); Fely Arriola (ADB); Takui Addy Arsene (ONG ADDY); Sarah M. Baird (Let There Be Light International); Miguel Chamochin (Energía sin Fronteras); Judith Dambo (GIZ; EnDev); Aleksandar Dedinec (Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts); Joanna Diecker (Global Off-Grid Lighting Association – GOGLA); Semeu Tchouente Duplex (ONG ADDY); Peter Foerster (GIZ; EnDev); Mukesh Ghimire (Alternative Energy Promotion Centre); Amélie Heuër (SEED); Katherine Johnston (SolarAid); Sacad MJ Kahin (Somaliland Energy for Sustainable Development Organization); Maryse Labriet (Eneris Environment Energy Consultants); Ernesto Macías Galán (Alliance for Rural Electrification – ARE); Angela Mastronardi (REPIC Secretariat); Gifty Serwaa Mensah (Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology – KNUST); Eve Meyer (PowerGen Renewable Energy); Chandirekera Mutubuki-Makuyana (SNV Netherlands Development Organisation); Sebastián Paneque Navarro (VIOGAZ S.A.); Bertille Nibizi (SHINE); Martin Niemetz (Sustainable Energy for All); Raphael Nguyen (GIZ; EnDev); Leanne O’Brien (SkyPower Global); Guilherme Collares Pereira (Energias de Portugal); Koen Peters (GOGLA); Pallav Purohit (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis); David Ato Quansah (KNUST); Yasemin Erboy Ruff (United Nations Foundation); Razvan Sandru (GIZ); Jasna Sekulovic (GIZ Open Regional Funds for South-East Europe); Karan Sehgal (International Fund for Agricultural Development); Chris Service (Foundation Rural Energy Services); Yeliz Şimşek (CSET); Yann Loic Tanvez (World Bank); Jesús Tapia (Energía sin Fronteras); Elizabeth Tully (Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves); Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (IDB); Susie Wheeldon (Power for All); Michael Wienhold (GOGLA)

Energy Efficiency

Didier Bosseboeuf (French Environment and Energy Management Agency – ADEME); Tyler Bryant (International Energy Agency – IEA); Kevin Carbonnier (New Buildings Institute – NBI); Cathy Higgins (NBI); Adam Hinge (Sustainable Energy Partnerships); Rod Janssen (Energy in Demand); Benoit Lebot (International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation); Jim McMahon (Better Climate Research & Policy Analysis); Alexi Miller (NBI); William Moomaw (Center for International Environment and Resource Policy, Tufts University); Melanie Slade (IEA); Peter Sweatman (Climate Strategy & Partners); Samuel Thomas (IEA)

Geothermal Power and Heat

Philippe Dumas (European Geothermal Energy Council – EGEC); Benjamin Matek (Geothermal Energy Association); Marietta Sander (International Geothermal Association); Burkhard Sanner (EGEC)

Global Overview

Heymi Bahar (IEA); Zuzana Dobrotkova (World Bank); Paolo Frankl (IEA); Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes (European Renewable Energies Federation; Eric Martinot (ISEP); Gevorg Sargsyan (World Bank); Sven Teske (University of Technology Sydney)

Heat Pumps

Thomas Nowak
(European Heat Pump Association)

Heating and Cooling

Lex Bosselaar (Rijksdienst voor ondernemend Nederland);
Bärbel Epp (solrico);
Walter Haslinger (Bioenergy 2020); Inés Arias Iglesias (Euroheat & Power); Michael Nast (German Aerospace Center – DLR)

Hydropower / Ocean Energy

Giulia Cancian (Hydro Equipment Association); Josh Klemm (International Rivers); Ana Brito e Melo (Ocean Energy Systems – OES); Mathis Rogner (International Hydropower Association – IHA), Richard Taylor (IHA);
Jose Luis Villate (OES)


Christine Gruening (Frankfurt School of Finance & Management); Karol Kempa (Frankfurt School); Angus McCrone (Bloomberg New Energy Finance – BNEF)


Arslan Khalid (IRENA);
Álvaro López-Peña (IRENA)


Wilson Rickerson
(Meister Consultants Group)

Solar PV

GTM Research (PV Pulse); Denis Lenardic (; Nhan Ngo Thi Mai (Becquerel Institute); Gaëtan Masson (IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme / Becquerel Institute); Alexandre Roesch (SolarPower Europe); Ioannis-Thomas Theologitis (SolarPower Europe)

Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling

Hongzhi Cheng (Shandong SunVision Management Consulting); Jan-Olof Dalenbäck (Chalmers University of Technology); Pedro Dias (European Solar Thermal Industry Federation); Uli Jakob (Green Chiller Verband für Sorptionskälte e.V.); Franz Mauthner (AEE – Institute for Sustainable Technologies – AEE INTEC); Monika Spörk-Dür (AEE INTEC);
Werner Weiss (AEE INTEC)


Cornie Huizenga (Partnership on Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport – SLoCaT); Peter Nuttal (University of the South Pacific); Karl Peet (SLoCaT);
Huib van Essen (CE Delft)

Wind Power

Giorgio Corbetta (WindEurope); Stefan Gsänger (WWEA); Aris Karcanias (FTI Consulting); Shi Pengfei (China Wind Energy Association); Jean-Daniel Pitteloud (WWEA); Steve Sawyer (GWEC); Shrutii Shukla (GWEC);
Feng Zhao (FTI Consulting)



Ledio Kosta (Carl Von Ossietzky University)


Samy Bouchaib (Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables)


Levon Vardanyan (Revelle Group)


Veryan Hann (University of Tasmania); Mike Cochran (APAC Biofuel Consultants); Alicia Webb (Clean Energy Council)


Harald Proidl (Energie-Control Austria)


Jahangir Efendiev (Revelle Group)


Dipal Chandra Barua (Grameen Bank)


Andriy Molochko (Revelle Group)


Cristina Calderon (European Biomass Association – AEBIOM)


Ramiro Trujillo (TransTech)


Yasmini Bianor Canali Dopico (University of Oldenburg); Suani Teixeira Coelho, Maria Beatriz Monteiro (Brazilian Reference Centre on Biomass – CENBIO/IEE/USP); Camila Ramos (Clean Energy Latin America)


Richard de Ferranti (International Institute for Sustainable Development – IISD); Jason Steele (SNV Netherlands Development Organisation)


Michael Paunescu (Natural Resources Canada); Sven Scholtysik (Canadian Geothermal Energy Association)


Rodrigo Escobar Moragas (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile); Yeliz Simsek, Elias Urrejola (Fraunhofer Chile Research Center for Solar Energy Technologies – CSET)


Frank Haugwitz (Asia Europe Clean Energy (Solar) Advisory Co. Ltd.); Amanda Zhang (Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association)


Rocio Cordova, Monica Gutierrez, Sonia Rueda (University of Oldenburg); Javier Eduardo Rodríguez Bonilla (Universidad de los Andes)

Costa Rica

Mauricio Solano-Peralta (Trama TecnoAmbiental)


Julio Torres Martinez (Centro de Investigaciones de la Economía Mundial)


Danish Energy Agency

Dominican Republic

Francisco Cruz (National Energy Commission – CNE)


Pablo Carvajal (University College London); Sebastián Espinoza (National Institute of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy – INER)


Mohammed El-Khayat (New and Renewable Energy Authority)


Raul Potisepp (Estonian Renewable Energy Association)


Atul Raturi (University of the South Pacific)


Romain Zissler (Renewable Energy Institute)


Murman Margvelashvili (World Experience for Georgia)


Peter Bickel, Thomas Nieder (ZSW Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research); Detlef Loy (Loy Energy Consulting); Marco Tepper (BSW-Solar)


Daniel Kofi Essien (Danessien Sustainable Energy Solutions Limited)


Ioannis Tsipouridis (Hellenic Wind Energy Association)


Ken Aldonza (GIZ)


Luca Zsofia Vasanczki (Dalkia)


María Guðmundsdóttir (National Energy Authority of Iceland)


Shaurya Bajaj, Jyoti Gulia, Jasmeet Khurana, Vinay Rustagi, Mohit Sehgal (Bridge to India); Bikash Kumar Sahu (Gandhi Institute for Education and Technology); Simla Tokgoz (International Food Policy Research Institute)


Yudha Irmansyah Siregar, Beni Suryadi, Badariah Yosiyana (ASEAN Centre for Energy)


Javad Abdollahi Sarvi (Karkeh Group);
Mohammadhosein Seyyedan (SAMANIR)


Gadi Hareli (World Wind Energy Association – WWEA)


Luca Benedetti (Gestore Servizi Energetici, Statistics and Studies Unit); Alessandro Marangoni (Althesys)


Keiji Kimura, Mika Ohbayashi (Renewable Energy Institute); Robert Lindner (United Nations University); Hironao Matsubara (ISEP)


Diana Athamneh (Modern Arabia for Solar Energy); Samer Zawaydeh (Association of Energy Engineers)


Lyubov Inyutina (Revelle Group)


Gulsara Kasymova (Revelle Group); Tatiana Vedeneva (Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Development)


Mariam El Forjani


Therese Galea (Ministry for Energy and Health)


Sandra Chavez (National Solar Energy Association – ANES); Luis Carlos Gutiérrez-Negrin (Mexican Geothermal Association, International Geothermal Association); Luis Daniel Rivera Rodriguez (University of Oldenburg)


Liudmila Burlui (Revelle Group)


Myagmardorj Enkhmend (Mongolian Wind Energy Association)


Marija Vujadinović Kulinović


Irene Garcia (WFC); El Mostafa Jamea (MENARES)


Simon Bittner (GIZ)


Luuk Beurskens (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands)


Lâl Marandin (PELICAN S.A.)


Lizzy Igbine (Nigerian Women Agro Allied Farmers Association)


Ånund Killingtveit (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)


Maimuna Al Farie
(Public Authority for Electricity)


Khalid Aslam
(Sapphire Wind Power Co. Ltd.)


Fernando Díaz (National Energy Secretariat, Republic of Panama)


Fabio Lucantonio


Heinrich Berg (Delta Volt)


Ferdinand Larona (GIZ)


João Graça Gomes, Susana Serôdio (Portuguese Renewable Energy Association – APREN); Fedra Oliveira (Directorate General for Energy and Geology)

Republic of Korea

Sanghoon Lee (Green Energy Strategy Institute)

Russian Federation

Georgy Ermolenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Institute for Energy); Maria Ryabova (MGIMO University)


Ilija Batas Bjelić (University of Belgrade); Vojislav Milijić (National Biomass Association SERBIO); Vukašin Vučević (Ministry of Mining and Energy, Serbia)

South Africa

Danai Majaha (SARDC); Jonathan Skeen


Sofia Martínez (Institute for Diversi-fication and Saving of Energy – IDAE)


Awadelrahman Mohamedelsadig Ali Ahmed (University of Oldenburg)


Roger Sallent (Inter-American Development Bank – IDB)


Robert Fischer (University of Bergen)

Taipei, China

Gloria Kuang-Jung Hsu (National Taiwan University)


Timur Valamat-Zade (Revelle Group)


Chris Greacen (World Bank); Sopitsuda Tongsopit (Chulalongkorn University)


Andriy Konechenkov (Ukrainian Wind Energy Association)

United Arab Emirates

Mohammad Bastaki, Hannes Reinisch (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, UAE)

United Kingdom

Stuart Bruce (Centre for International Sustainable Development Law)

United States

Keith Benes (Columbia University); Parthiv Kurup, Mark Mehos, Craig Turchi (National Renewable Energy Laboratory – NREL)


Secretary of Energy (Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mines – MIEM)


Larisa Tashodjaeva (Revelle Group)


Climate & Clean Air Coalition


Oguier Garavitto (Universidad del Zulia)


Peter Cattelaens (GIZ)


Francis Masawi (Energy and Information Logistics (Pvt) Ltd)


Sheikh Adil (Banaras Hindu University); Betsy Agar (Renewable Cities); Udochukwu Akuru (University of Nigeria); Jesper Skovhus Andersen (Ringkøbing Fjernvarmeværk); Kathleen Araujo (Stony Brook University); Manjola Banja (European Commission – EC); Nils Borg (IEA 4E); Jean-Baptiste Brochier (Enerdata); David Brosch (University Park Community Solar LLC); Roman Buss (Renewables Academy – RENAC); Miquel Muñoz Cabré (IRENA); Valeria Cantello (Energrid S.p.A.); Kanika Chawla (Council on Energy, Environment and Water); Nigel Cotton (European Copper Institute); Nihat Dinçmen (World Wide Welcome, Inc); Abdou Diop (Enda Energie); Henning Donslund (Ringkøbing-Skjern Kommune); Sossougad Dossa (Amis des Etrangers au Togo – ADET); Julio Eisman Valdès (Fundación ACCIONA Microenergía); Mark Ellis (IEA 4E); Kerstin Faehrmann (German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development – BMZ); Dave Ferrari (RMIT University); Doerte Fouquet (Becker Buettner Held Law Firm); David Fullbrook (DNV GL); Valeria Gambino (Absolute Energy Capital); Daniel García (FAMERAC); Fabio Genoese (Centre for European Policy Studies, Sciences Po); Jacopo Giuntoli (EC Joint Research Centre Institute for Energy and Transport); Wolfgang Glatzl (AEE INTEC); Renata Grisoli (United Nations Development Programme); Ken Guthrie (IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme); Alexander Haack (GIZ); Ahmed Hamza (Assiut University); Tobias Hausotter (GIZ); Jenny Heeter (NREL); Michael Hofmann (IDB); Dieter Holm (SOLTRAIN); Kristen Hughes (University of Pennsylvania); Chijioke Igweh (National Centre for Energy Research and Development – NCERD, University of Nigeria); Andrei Ilas (IRENA); Lutz Jarczynski (GIZ); Rashmi Jahawar (REN21); Jean-Marc Jossart (AEBIOM); Kira Kahmann (GIZ); Alexander Kauer (BMZ); Buchanan Kent (DEA); Wim Jonker Klunne (Energy & Environment Partnership Programme); Bozhil Kondev (GIZ); Ashraf Kraidy (League of Arab States); Arun Kumar (Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee); Oliver Lah (GIZ); David Lecoque (ARE); Sarah Melissa Leitner (GIZ); Christian Liedtke (GIZ); Hugo Lucas (Environmental Studies, York University); Lorcan Lyons (Lorcan Lyons Consulting); Henning Bo Madsen (Friends of the Earth Denmark) Maged Mahmoud (RCREEE); Jaideep Malaviya (Solar Thermal Federation of India); Jesus Gavilan Marin (Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Mozambique); Ana Marques (ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability); Mathias Merforth (GIZ); Marcelo Mesquita (ABRAVA); Klaus Mischensky (Austria Solar); Lyne Monastesse (Natural Resources Canada); Frederick H. Morse (Morse Associates, Inc.); Gustavo Motta (Ministry of Mines and Energy, Brazil); F.H. Mughal; Les Nelson (International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials); Jan Erik Nielsen (PlanEnergi); Bruce Nordman (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory); Samantha Ölz (consultant); Eric O’Shaughnessy (NREL); Ousmane Outtara (Mali Folkecentre); Carter Page (Global Energy Capital LLC); Binu Parthan (Sustainable Energy Associates); Cristina Peñasco (Spanish National Research Council – CSIC); Robert J. Phillips (Global Affairs Canada); Inna Platonova (Light Up The World); Pascual Polo (Spanish Solar Thermal Association – ASIT); Robert Rapier (Merica International); Jörn Rauhut (German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy – BMWi); David Renné (International Solar Energy Society); Pablo del Río (CSIC); María Hilda Rivera (Power Africa); Heather Rosmarin (InterAmerican Clean Energy Institute); Jo Rowbotham (Te Whiti Services SPC); Qendresa Rugova (Burg Capital GmBH); Kumiko Saito (Solar System Development Association); Gianluca Sambucini (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe); Robert Sandoli (US Department of Energy); Katharina Satzinger (REN21); Martin Schöpe (BMWi); Stefan Schurig (WFC); Rafael Senga (WWF Energy Programme); Ian Shearer (The Sustainable Energy Forum Inc.); Eli Shilten (Elson); Ruth Shortall (University of Iceland); Fuad Siala (OPEC Fund for International Development); Anoop Singh (Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur); Carel Snyman (South African National Energy Development Institute); Staff (Arc Finance); Janusz Starościk (Association of Manufacturers and Importers of Heating Appliances – SPIUG); David Stickelberger (Swissolar); Geoffrey Stiles (Carbon Impact Consultants); Benjamin Struss (GIZ); Paul H. Suding (elsud); Raúl Tauro (Mexican Bioenergy Network – REMBIO); Reto Thoenen (REPIC Secretariat); Robert Thomson (Fetlar Developments Ltd); Ralph Torrie (Torrie Smith Associates); Costas Travasaros (Greek Solar Industry Association – EBHE); Maloba Tshehla (Green Cape); Stanley Tshoga (Biogas Solar Engineering Zimbabwe); Nico Tyabji (BNEF); Kutay Ülke (Ezinç Metal); Rene Vossenaar (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development – UNCTAD); Daniel Werner (GIZ); Adrian Whiteman (IRENA); Philipp Wittrock (GIZ); Tore Wizelius (Vindform AB); Michael Wood (SkyPower); Frank Wouters (Wouters Ltd.)

The Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment report (GTR), formerly Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment, was first published by the Frankfurt School–UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance in 2011. This annual report was produced previously (starting in 2007) under UNEP’s Sustainable Energy Finance Initiative (SEFI). It grew out of efforts to track and publish comprehensive information about international investments in renewable energy. The latest edition of this authoritative annual report tells the story of the most recent developments, signs and signals in the financing of renewable power and fuels. It explores the issues affecting each type of investment, technology and type of economy. The GTR is produced jointly with Bloomberg New Energy Finance and is the sister publication to the REN21 Renewables Global Status Report (GSR). The latest edition was released in March 2016 and is available for download at