Table R1 from the following sources: Bio-power based on 2015 forecast data in International Energy Agency (IEA), Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2015 (Paris: 2015), https://www.iea.org/bookshop/708-Medium-Term_Renewable_Energy_Market_Report_2015, except for the following: U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, “Office of Energy Projects Energy Infrastructure Update for December 2015,” http://www.ferc.gov/legal/staff-reports/2015/dec-infrastructure.pdf; Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL), “Banco de informacoes de geração”, http://www.aneel.gov.br/apl[cacoes/capacidadebrasil/combustivel.cfm, viewed 9 May 2016; China National Renewable Energy Centre, provided by Amanda Zhang, Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association, personal communication with REN21, 26 April 2016; Germany preliminary statistics from Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie, Erneuerbare Energien in Deutschland, Daten zur Entwicklung im Jahr 2015 (Berlin: February 2016), http://www.erneuerbare-energien.de/EE/Redaktion/DE/Downloads/erneuerbare-energien-in-zahlen-2015.pdf; UK Department of Energy & Climate Change, “Energy Trends Section 6 – Renewables” (London: March 2016), Table 6.1, https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/energy-trends-section-6-renewables, viewed 22 April 2016; Government of India, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), “Physical progress (achievements) – up to the month of December 2015,” http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/; MNRE, “Physical progress (achievements) – up to the month of December 2014,” http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/; Japan from Hironao Matsubara, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Japan, personal communication with REN21, 10 April 2016. Geothermal power from sources in endnote 1 in Geothermal Power and Heat section of Market and Industry Trends chapter. Hydropower from sources in endnote 5 of this section. Ocean power from International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Renewable Capacity Statistics 2017 (Abu Dhabi: April 2017), http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_RE_Capacity_Statistics_2017.pdf. Solar PV from sources in endnote 6 of this section. CSP from sources in endnote 7 of this section. Wind power from sources in endnote 9 of this section. Modern bio-heat based on the following: 297 GWth of bioenergy heat plant capacity installed as of 2008, from Helena Chum et al., “Bioenergy”, in Ottmar Edenhofer et al., eds., IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (Cambridge, UK and New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2011), http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srren/Chapter%202%20Bioenergy.pdf. Projections based on this number have been made for past GSRs. The combination of the Chum et al. data, plus past GSR projections, was used to estimate 2014 values of 305 GWth using a linear regression. The 2015 value presented here assumes a 3.5% growth rate from that 305 GWth value, based on the same percent increase for modern heat generation as presented in IEA, op. cit. this note, p. 242. Note that accurate heat data, including from bioenergy, are very difficult to obtain as most capacity installations and output are not metered. Even if plant capacities are known, there is often no knowledge of whether a 1 MWth plant, for example, is used for 80 hours or 8,000 hours per year. Geothermal heating capacity derived from John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd, “Direct utilization of geothermal energy: 2015 worldwide review”, in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2015 (Melbourne, Australia: 19–25 April 2015), and from Luis C.A. Gutiérrez-Negrín, International Geothermal Association and Mexican Geothermal Association, personal communication with REN21, March 2015. Capacity figure for 2015 is extrapolated from 2014 values (from sources) by weighted-average growth rate across eight categories of geothermal direct use: space heating, bathing and swimming, greenhouse heating, aquaculture, industrial use, snow melting and cooling, agricultural drying and other. The weighted-average five-year annual growth rate for capacity is 6.0% compared to 5.9% simple growth rate for the same period. The weighted-average five-year annual growth rate for utilisation is 3.5% compared to 3.3% simple growth rate for the same period. Solar collectors for water heating estimates based on Franz Mauthner, AEE – Institute for Sustainable Technologies (AEE INTEC), personal communication with REN21, April 2016, and on Franz Mauthner and Werner Weiss, Solar Heat Worldwide: Markets and Contribution to the Energy Supply 2014 (Gleisdorf, Austria: IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (IEA SHC), May 2016). See Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes for more details. Ethanol, biodiesel and HVO production data from sources in endnote 3 of this section.
Table R2 from the following sources: For all global data, See endnote 1 for this section and other relevant reference tables. For more-specific data and sources, see Global Overview chapter and Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes. For sources for BRICS, EU and individual countries, See endnote for Figure 5 in Global Overview chapter. Per capita data based on capacity data provided in Reference Table R2 and on 2015 country population data from World Bank, “Population, total”, World Development Indicators, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL, updated 23 March 2017.2
Table R3 from the following sources: fuel ethanol data from F.O. Licht, “Fuel Ethanol: World Production by Country”, 2016; biodiesel and HVO data from F.O. Licht, “Biodiesel: World Production, by Country”, 2017, with permission from F.O. Licht/Licht Interactive Data. Preliminary 2015 data that appeared in GSR 2016 have been updated where possible.
Table R4 from the following sources: See endnote 1 of Geothermal section in Market and Industry Trends chapter.
Table R5 from the following sources: Global capacity estimate based on International Hydropower Association (IHA), 2017 Key Trends in Hydropower (London: April 2017), http://www.hydropower.org, on IHA, 2016 Hydropower Status Report (London: May 2016), http://www.hydropower.org, and on IHA, personal communication with REN21, March-April 2017. Total installed capacity is 1,246 GW (31.5 GW added), less 150 GW of pumped storage (6.4 GW added). Country data from the following sources: China: total capacity, capacity growth, utilisation and investment from China National Energy Administration (CNEA), summary of national electric industry statistics for 2016, http://www.nea.gov.cn/2017-01/16/c_135986964.htm; capacity additions in 2016, including pumped storage, from China Electricity Council, annual report on national power system, 25 January 2017, http://www.cec.org.cn/yaowenkuaidi/2017-01-25/164285.html; capacity, including pumped storage, at year-end 2015 from CNEA, 13th Five-Year-Plan for Hydro Power Development (Beijing: 29 November 2016), http://www.nea.gov.cn/135867663_14804701976251n.pdf. Brazil: 5,292 MW (5,002 MW large hydro, 203 MW small hydro and 87 MW very small hydro) added in 2016, from National Agency for Electrical Energy (ANEEL), “Resumo geral dos novos empreendimentos de geração”, http://www.aneel.gov.br/documents/655816/15224356/Resumo_Geral_das_Usinas_março_2017.zip, updated March 2017; large hydro capacity is listed as 91,499 MW at end-2016, small (1-30 MW) hydro as 4,941 MW and very small (less than 1 MW) hydro as 484 MW (compared to 398 MW in the previous year), for a total of 96,925 MW. United States: capacity from US Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Monthly, February 2017, Tables 6.2.B and 6.3, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly. Canada: data for 2015 only from Statistics Canada, “Table 127-0009 installed generating capacity, by class of electricity producer”, http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim. Russian Federation: capacity from System Operator of the Unified Energy System of Russia, Report on the Unified Energy System in 2016 (Moscow: January 2017), http://www.so-ups.ru/fileadmin/files/company/reports/disclosure/2017/ups_rep2016.pdf. India: installed capacity in 2016 (units larger than 25 MW) of 43,139 MW from Government of India, Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority, “All India installed capacity (in MW) of power stations”, December 2016, http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/installedcapacity/2016/installed_capacity-12.pdf; capacity additions in 2016 (greater than 25 MW) of 415 MW from idem, “Executive summary of the power sector (monthly)”, http://www.cea.nic.in/monthlyarchive.html; installed capacity in 2016 (<25 MW) of 4,325 MW from Government of India, MNRE, “Physical progress (achievements)”, http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/, viewed 19 January 2017; capacity additions in 2016 (<25 MW) of 148 MW based on difference of year-end 2016 figure (above) and year-end 2015 figure (4,177 MW) from MNRE, idem. Ecuador: capacity from IHA, op. cit. this note, all three references; Ethiopia: capacity from IHA, op. cit. this note, all three references; Vietnam: capacity from IHA, op. cit. this note, all three references; Peru: IHA, op. cit. this note, all three references, and from Government of Peru, Organismo Supervisor de la Inversión en Energía y Minería, inventory of hydropower projects, http://www.osinergmin.gob.pe/empresas/electricidad/proyectos/generacion, viewed May 2017.
Table R6 from the following sources: Unless noted otherwise, data for end-2015 from IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (IEA PVPS), Trends in Photovoltaic Applications, 2016: Survey Report of Selected IEA Countries Between 1992 and 2015 (Paris: 2016), http://www.iea-pvps.org/fileadmin/dam/public/report/national/Trends_2016_-_mr.pdf, and from SolarPower Europe, Global Market Outlook for Solar Power 2016–2020 (Brussels: 2016). Data for 2016 from IEA PVPS, Snapshot of Global Photovoltaic Markets 2016 (Paris: April 2017), p. 4, http://www.iea-pvps.org/fileadmin/dam/public/report/statistics/IEA-PVPS_-__A_Snapshot_of_Global_PV_-_1992-2016.pdf, and from sources provided below. This report aims to provide all solar PV data in direct current (DC) units. Note that some countries (e.g., Canada, Chile, Japan since 2012, and Spain) report data officially in alternating current (AC); for consistency across countries, AC data were converted to DC by the relevant sources listed. Additional country sources include: China: Dazhong Xiao, “2016 photovoltaic power generation statistics”, National Energy Board, 4 February 2017, http://www.nea.gov.cn/2017-02/04/c_136030860.htm (using Google Translate). United States: GTM Research, personal communication with REN21, 2 May 2017, and GTM Research, cited in US Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), “Solar Market Insight Report 2016 Year in Review”, http://www.seia.org/research-resources/solar-market-insight-report-2016-year-review, viewed 2 May 2017. Japan: IEA PVPS, Snapshot of Global Photovoltaic Markets 2016, op. cit. this note, and Gaëtan Masson, IEA PVPS and Becquerel Institute, personal communication with REN21, 9 May 2017. India: End-2015 from IEA PVPS, Trends in Photovoltaic Applications, op. cit. this note. Additions in 2016 and year-end capacity based on data from Government of India, MNRE, “Physical progress (achievements)”, data as on 31 December 2016, http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements, viewed 19 January 2017, and from MNRE, “Physical progress (achievements)”, data as on 31 December 2015, viewed 1 February 2016, and assuming that India had 225 MW of CSP capacity (with no 2016 additions) in both years (See CSP section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and Reference Table R7). United Kingdom: UK Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, “Solar Photovoltaics Deployment in the UK February 2017”, updated 30 March 2017, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/585828/Solar_photovoltaics_deployment_March_2017.xlsx. Germany: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi), Zeitreihen zur Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland, unter Verwendung von Daten der Arbeitsgruppe Erneuerbare Energien-Statistik (AGEE-Stat) (Stand: Februar 2017), p. 7, http://www.erneuerbare-energien.de/EE/Redaktion/DE/Downloads/zeitreihen-zur-entwicklung-der-erneuerbaren-energien-in-deutschland-1990-2016.pdf. Republic of Korea: IEA PVPS, Snapshot of Global Photovoltaic Markets 2016, op. cit. this note, and Jaehong Seo, KOPIA, presentation for International Green Energy Conference 2017, Daegu, Republic of Korea, 5-6 April 2017, provided by Frank Haugwitz, Asia Europe Clean Energy (Solar) Advisory Co. Ltd., personal communication with REN21, 8 May 2017. Australia: Australian PV Institute, “Australian PV market since April 2001”, http://pv-map.apvi.org.au/analyses, viewed 2 May 2017. See Solar PV section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes for additional statistics and details.
Table R8 from the following sources: cumulative solar thermal capacity in operation nationally and globally at end-2015 from Monika Spörk-Dür, AEE INTEC, Gleisdorf, Austria, personal communications with REN21, March-May 2017; Werner Weiss and Monika Spörk-Dür, Solar Heat Worldwide: Markets and Contribution to the Energy Supply 2015 (Gleisdorf, Austria: IEA SHC, 2017). Gross additions on a national level from the following associations and experts: David Ferrari, Sustainability Victoria, Melbourne, Australia; Werner Weiss, AEE INTEC, Vienna, Austria; Marcelo Mesquita, ABRASOL, São Paulo, Brazil; Hongzhi Cheng, Shandong SunVision Management Consulting, Dezhou, China; Denmark from Daniel Trier, PlanEnergi, Skørping, Denmark, and from Jan-Olof Dalenbäck, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden; Richard Loyen, Enerplan, La Ciotat, France; Marco Tepper, BSW Solar, Berlin, Germany; Costas Travasaros, Greek Solar Industry Association (EBHE), Piraeus, Greece; Jaideep Malaviya, Solar Thermal Federation of India (STFI), Pune, India; Eli Shilton, Elsol, Kohar-yair, Israel; Federico Musazzi, ANIMA, the Federation of Italian Associations in the Mechanical and Engineering Industries, Milano, Italy; Kumiko Saito, Solar System Development Association (SSDA), Tokyo, Japan; Daniel Garcia, Solar Thermal Manufacturers Organisation (FAMERAC), Mexico City, Mexico; Janusz Staroscik, Association of Manufacturers and Importers of Heating Appliances (SPIUG), Warsaw, Poland; Karin Kritzinger, Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies, Univeristy of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Pascual Polo, Spanish Solar Thermal Association (ASIT), Madrid, Spain; David Stickelberger, Swissolar, Zurich, Switzerland; Kung-Ming Chung, Energy Research Center of the National Cheng Kung University (NCKU), Tainan City, Chinese Taipei; Turkey from Kutay Ülke, Bural Heating (formerly Ezinç Metal), Kayseri, Turkey, and from Krystyna Dawson, BSIRA, Berkshire, United Kingdom; Les Nelson, Solar Heating & Cooling Programs at the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO), Ontario, CA, United States, all personal communications with REN21, February-April 2017. Gross additions for South Africa were not available at the time of publication, so it is assumed that they remained stable from 2015 to 2016. Gross additions of Denmark for 2016 do not include the new district heating plant in Brønderslev (26,929 m2), which consists of parabolic trough collectors. Total gross additions worldwide for 2016 are based on estimates from Spörk-Dür, op. cit. this note.
Table R16 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EUROSTAT, op. cit. note 15. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.16
Table R17 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EUROSTAT, op. cit. note 15. IEA statistics based on data from IEA, “Electricity Information 2015, www.iea.org/statistics, as modified by REN21. Targets for the EU-28 were set in each country's National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP), available at http://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/renewable-energy/national-action-plans; certain NREAP targets have been revised subsequently. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.
Table R19 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.19
Table R20 from the following sources: All available policy references, including the IEA/IRENA online Global Renewable Energy Policies and Measures database, published sources as given in the endnotes for the Policy Landscape chapter of this report, and submissions from report contributors.20
Table R22 from the following sources: All available policy references, including the IEA/IRENA online Global Renewable Energy Policies and Measures database, published sources as given in the endnotes for the Policy Landscape chapter of this report, and submissions from report contributors.22
Table R23 from REN21 database compiled from all available policy references plus submissions from report contributors. EU targets and shares from EUROSTAT, op. cit. note 15. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net. Targets for the EU-28 and Energy Community countries were set in each country’s NREAP; certain NREAP targets have been revised subsequently. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.23
Table R24 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EUROSTAT, op. cit. note 15. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.24
Table R26 from REN21 database compiled from all available policy references plus submissions from report contributors the following sources: For selected targets and policies, see: EU Covenant of Mayors; C40 Cities; ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability; REN21, Global Futures Report (Paris: 2013); and REN21, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies and ICLEI, 2011 Global Status Report on Local Renewable Energy Policies (Paris: May 2011). For additional information on sources See endnote 1 for the Policy Landscape chapter.26