The remarkable growth in renewable energy production in recent years has been concentrated in the power sector; meanwhile, the heating and cooling and transport end-use sectors have not seen commensurate growth. Most power sector growth has occurred among the variable renewable energy technologies (wind power and solar PV) raising concerns about potential challenges of integrating large shares of variable generation into existing power systems. Against this backdrop, certain enabling technologies – along with improvements in energy infrastructure, energy markets and related institutional frameworks – can serve two synergistic purposes: creating new conduits for renewable energy to reach all end-use sectors, and facilitating the successful integration of ever-growing shares of variable renewable electricity generation.

Enabling technologies can take many forms. For the purpose of this chapter, they are technologies that share the potential to facilitate and advance the deployment and use of renewable energy, and include:

End-use technologies (e.g., electric vehicles and heat pumps)

Energy storage (e.g., pumped storage; home-, commercial- or grid-scale batteries; thermal storage)

Demand-side energy management technologies (e.g., energy management systems in buildings; interruptible industrial load)

Energy supply and delivery management technologies (e.g., advanced distribution network management and systems control options).1

Overall, enabling technologies comprise both the physical infrastructure and the automation technology required to support, for example, greater systems integration, data collection and dissemination of system resources, and effective and efficient demand response. This can enhance the function and efficiency of energy systems and thereby facilitate greater deployment and use of renewable energy.

This chapter reports on current developments for three types of enabling technologies: energy storage, heat pumps and electric vehicles (EVs). None of these technology groups has been developed for the specific purpose of facilitating wider deployment of renewable energy. For instance, energy storage historically has been deployed for use in consumer goods (e.g., mobile phones), in modern manufacturing (for applications where uninterrupted power is critical) and to support large-scale grid power management (i.e., via pumped storage).2 Heat pumps have been a primary option to improve efficiency in electrified water and space heating. EVs have been pursued largely for their potential to improve local air quality and to reduce the direct use of fossil fuels in the transport sector.3


These technologies present significant opportunities to bring additional benefits by creating new markets for renewable energy in buildings, industry and transport. For example, electrification of vehicles not only reduces local air pollution, but also allows for rapidly growing renewable power technologies to displace fossil fuels in a sector where renewables other than biofuels previously were barred from entry. Air quality is enhanced further, along with other benefits of expanded renewables deployment. Heat pumps allow renewable power to substitute for fossil fuels in buildings and industrial heat applications, and energy storage solutions help to balance grid-connected renewable energy supply against energy demand and facilitate off-grid renewable energy deployment.4


In addition to their potential to create new or expanded markets for renewable energy, enabling technologies can help better accommodate rapidly growing shares of variable renewable electricity generation. Power systems have always required flexibility to accommodate ever-changing electricity demand, system constraints and supply disruptions, but growing shares of variable generation may require additional flexibility from the broader energy system.5 ( See Feature chapter.) This includes flexible generation; load response from energy consumers; coupling of the electric, thermal and transport sectors; improved delivery infrastructure; and enhanced energy markets and associated institutions. The increased integration of the electricity sector with thermal applications in buildings and industry and with transport is one such approach, as is increased use of energy storage.6

While enabling technologies in their own right may present new opportunities for renewable energy, a wide range of additional considerations needs to be explored to promote broader energy system integration. These considerations span various technical, regulatory and market elements that may help to unlock greater synergies between renewable energy generation and various enabling technologies, possibly allowing more optimal outcomes, and they pertain to the following areas7:

Market design frameworks that allow both the proper valuation of and compensation for enabling technologies. Enabling technologies can provide a range of services and benefits to individual consumers, energy providers and the energy system as a whole, helping to balance supply and demand, to promote the stability of the power grid and to provide backup energy during power outages or energy shortages. However, there may not be a market framework in place either to establish the economic value of such services or to compensate the owner of the enabling technology once such value is established. This may reduce the attractiveness of investment in enabling technologies.

Legal and regulatory frameworks that allow the participation of enabling technologies, as well as the monetisation of their services. Depending on the jurisdiction, the participation of enabling technologies may not be allowed without changes to laws, regulations and grid codes. For instance, while an individual electric vehicle may be used for backup power during an outage, it may not be permitted to sell power into an electricity market.

Sufficient availability and access to system data, and appropriate legal safeguards thereof. A healthy market for enabling technologies likely will require some level of access to consumer and grid data, such that utilities and possibly other parties may pursue the most valuable opportunities and promote economically efficient allocation of resources. This requires finding a balance between consumer privacy and protection of critical infrastructure data, with the objective of forming an efficient, dynamic and open market.

Adequate technology for grid operators to gather, process and act on system data in real-time and to reliably control and dispatch enabling technology installations from a distance. To maximise the effectiveness and efficiency of enabling technologies, it is necessary to know their moment-by-moment availabilities and capabilities and to understand how best to use them. An infrastructure that can support bi-directional information exchange is required in order to feed a continuous stream of data about the conditions of the power system as a whole, including the availability of enabling technology installations (individual or aggregated) to respond to automated commands based on real-time, system-wide resource optimisation.

Energy Storage

Energy storage has long been used for a variety of purposes, including to support the overall reliability of the electricity grid, to help defer or avoid investments in other infrastructure, to provide backup energy during power outages or other energy shortages, to allow energy infrastructure to be more resilient, to support off-grid systems and to facilitate energy access for under-served populations. In 2016, a primary driver for advances in energy storage was the demand for battery storage in EVs.8


Energy storage technologies can capture energy during periods when demand or costs are low, or when electricity (or heat) supply exceeds demand, and can surrender stored energy (electric or thermal) when demand or energy costs are high. Storage can provide system benefits and flexibility to customers, system managers and utilities and can be applied from the household level (behind the meter) to utility-scale. Storage also can participate in a range of market segments, particularly in power markets, acting as a direct energy provider to the broader system, as hardware to support energy delivery or as a supplementary system for individual households or businesses.9 ( See Figure 49.) Many ownership models are possible (e.g., utility, third-party, customer level), along with a diverse mix of corresponding business and financing models to promote growth.10 A number of different energy storage technologies exist and are under development, and their characteristics (response time, discharge time, output capacity and efficiency) and functions vary widely. As of 2016, most electric energy storage capacity relied on pumped storagei, the oldest and most mature electricity storage option, as well as the largest in scale (per system).11 Other electricity storage technologies include batteries (electro-chemical), flywheels and compressed air (both electromechanical). Thermal energy storage, which stocks heating or cooling for later use (e.g., molten salt, ice storage, etc.) also is present in some markets and can serve both thermal applications and electricity by conversion.12 Only pumped storage is a highly mature technology; all others are undergoing development and transition. The potential for abundant, low-cost energy storage offers the prospect of reconceptualising how energy systems are planned and operated.

Figure 49. Storage Applications in Electric Power Systems


Source: See endnote 9 for this chapter.

iPumped storage hydropower involves pumping water to a higher elevation to store its potential kinetic energy until the energy is needed. Pumped storage can be implemented in a stand-alone (closed-loop) application or as part of a conventional reservoir hydropower facility (open loop). Without pumping capability, a conventional reservoir hydropower facility can serve as storage only in the context of deferred generation, meaning that generation can be held off to accommodate other generation (such as solar PV and wind power), but excess grid power cannot be captured for storage. i

Energy Storage Markets

Global grid-connected and stationary energy storage capacity in 2016 totalled an estimated 156 GWii, with pumped storage hydropower accounting for the vast majority.13 ( See Figure 50.)) More than 6 GW of pumped storage capacity was commissioned in 2016, for a year-end total of approximately 150 GW.14 ( See Hydropower section in Market and Industry Trends chapter.) The rest of this section focuses on energy storage other than pumped storage.


About 0.8 GW of new advanced energy storage capacity became operational in 2016, bringing the year-end capacity total to an estimated 6.4 GW.15 Most of the growth was in battery (electro-chemical) storage, which increased by 0.6 GW for a total of 1.7 GW.16 Lithium-ion batteries comprised the majority of new capacity installed.17 The remaining additions were mainly in the form of thermal storage, which was up by 0.2 GW (mostly molten salt storage at CSP plants), for a year-end total of 3.1 GW.18 Very little electro-mechanical storage was added in 2016, with the total remaining at 1.6 GW.19 Emerging technologies such as conversion of surplus electricity to hydrogen or other gases are in the earlier stages of development and demonstration and have not yet seen large deployments.

Figure 50. Global Grid-Connected Energy Storage Capacity, by Technology, 2016


Source: See endnote 13 for this chapter.

The United States added the most new non-pumped storage capacity in 2016 (0.3 GW), followed by the Republic of Korea (0.2 GW) and by Japan, Germany and South Africa (0.1 GW each).20 The United States also had the most non-pumped energy storage capacity (1.5 GW) at year’s end, followed by Spain, Germany and Chile. For stationary battery storage alone, the United States was in the lead, followed by the Republic of Korea, Japan, Germany, Italy and Chile.21 ( See Figure 51.))

Figure 51. Global Grid-Connected Stationary Battery Storage Capacity, by Country, 2006-2016


Grid-connected battery storage grew by + 50% in 2016.

Source: See endnote 21 for this chapter.

The 0.3 GW of non-pumped storage capacity added in the United States during 2016 included 0.1 GW of molten salt thermal storage at a CSP plant in Nevada, with the remainder being mostly battery storage, comprising primarily lithium-ion technology.22 A large portion of the battery storage additions was installed in California in anticipation of an electricity shortfall due to a natural gas leak.23 By one estimate, about 20% of new US battery storage capacity was in residential and commercial behind-the-meter installations.24


The Republic of Korea’s additions (0.2 GW) in 2016 were all in the form of electro-chemical storage, bringing the national total to 0.3 GW.25 The electric utility deploying the technology noted the importance of owning and operating emission-free resources to support its frequency control markets.26

Deployment of energy storage capacity also is rising rapidly in Japan, where more than 0.1 GW was brought online in 2016 for a year-end total of 0.25 GW.27 Following the March 2011 earthquake, Japan’s government began to explore options to increase power system reliability and cross-regional co-ordination of the electric grid through market liberalisation.28 Energy storage has been deployed to provide flexibility to the country’s rapidly increasing output of variable renewable energy (particularly solar PV).29

In Europe, Germany saw the largest additions of non-pumped storage during 2016, with 36 MW of large-scale projects commissioned for a year-end total of 1.1 GW.30 The country’s residential storage market (behind the meter) is expanding as a growing share of solar PV systems is paired with battery storage; rising from 14% of PV systems in 2014 to more than half of new installations in 2016.31 An estimated 25,355 home energy storage systems were installed in Germany during 2016, accounting for about 80% of Europe's annual market.32

Also in Europe, a 20 MW battery storage project was installed in the Netherlands in 2016 as a replacement for a natural gas peaker generation plant.33 The United Kingdom committed to significant additional future capacity when National Grid (the owner and operator of the transmission grid in England and Wales) procured 0.2 GW of Enhanced Frequency Response services through an auction in mid-2016; all winning bids were in the form of storage solutions that are to be implemented in 2017–2018, at a total cost of USD 81 million (GBP 66 million).34

China has relatively little storage capacity to date, beyond pumped storage. However, this could soon change due to a pilot programme, launched in 2016, to address curtailment of solar and wind power in three of the country’s northern regions. This programme is designed to allow energy storage to provide services such as peak shaving and frequency regulation and to receive payment for services provided.35

Australia, with one of the world’s highest penetrations of residential solar PV, is a small but rapidly expanding market for small-scale, behind-the-meter battery storage systems.36 Battery storage systems are being used to increase on-site use of distributed generation. Rising electricity prices, falling costs of solar PV systems and declining feed-in-tariffs have combined to drive Australia’s market for residential battery systems in conjunction with solar PV.37 Many solar suppliers have begun to offer battery solutions as part of their solar installations, and the market is growing rapidly from a small base.38 In 2016, the annual residential storage market grew 13-fold, with nearly 7,000 systems installed. 39

While most advanced storage capacity added in 2016 was in the form of batteries (electro-chemical), thermal storage is playing an increasingly important role alongside CSP plants. In South Africa, 0.1 GW of molten salt thermal storage came into operation during 2016 at two CSP plants, providing several hours of plant operating capacity.40 China also added a small amount of CSP-linked storage capacity.41 ( See CSP section in Market and Industry Trends chapter.)

Seasonal storage for heat generated by renewable energy for district heating systems (heat is fed in the summer, taken out in winter) continued to be used in several European countries and in Canada in 2016.42 Such systems often are combined with the electric grid, using excess electricity for stored heat.43

iiThis total aims to include all storage with the exception of off-grid storage or batteries in EVs, but it may exclude some thermal storage in district heating systems. ii

Energy Storage Industry

The year 2016 was characterised by the diversification of utilities, renewable energy companies, vehicle manufacturers and oil and gas companies into the storage industry in order to capture rapidly growing markets. For example, Innogy SE, the renewable energy subsidiary of German utility RWE, took over the solar and energy storage business of Belectric Solar & Battery, and Total (France) acquired a majority stake in Saft Groupe (France).44The year also was marked by the expansion of product options and manufacturing capacity, increased pairing of storage with other systems (including solar PV and wind power) and ongoing advances in a range of storage technologies.

As of 2016, Panasonic (Japan) dominated the production of lithium-ion batteries for EVs and other applications, with double the output of its nearest competitor.45 The company collaborates with Tesla (United States) through the latter’s US-based Gigafactory, which started mass production of lithium-ion batteries in late 2016.46 Other leading manufacturers of batteries for EVs include Samsung SDI and LG Chem (both Republic of Korea).47 Chinese manufacturers are rapidly gaining market share, including BYD and Contemporary Amperex Technology, which reportedly benefit from preferential domestic treatment over their three Japanese and Korean competitors, which are pursuing battery manufacturing in China.48

In the power sector, several companies advanced new home storage options to compete in this rapidly growing market. For example, Daimler AG (Germany) started delivery of its Mercedes-Benz stationary residential energy storage units using lithium-ion batteries that were originally designed for automotive use, and committed to mass development of a lithium-ion battery line in California. 49 Germany’s second largest utility, E.ON, launched a residential solar-plus-storage option in its home country.50 Sonnen (Germany) launched a home battery for self-consumption in the United States, priced at 40% below the company’s existing residential system.51 In the first half of 2016, Sonnen held a 23% market share across Australia, Europe and the United States, followed by LG Chem (Republic of Korea) and Deutsche Energieversorgung. 52Numerous partnerships were launched or announced to develop or distribute solar-plus-storage solutions during the year. 53 For example, solar PV inverter manufacturer Sungrow (China) and Samsung (Republic of Korea) launched a joint venture to provide complete energy storage systems.54 US-based solar technology company Enphase Energy joined Tesla, LG Chem and others in the battery storage market in Australia in response to the country’s surge in rooftop solar power.55 In addition, wind turbine manufacturer Envision (China) and GE Ventures (United States), among others, acquired stakes in Germany’s Sonnen to increase their presence in fast-growing energy storage markets in Australia, Europe and the United States.56

Several utility-scale renewable energy-plus-storage plants were completed in 2016, including Tesla’s first solar-plus-storage installation in the United Kingdom and a Sungrow facility in China.57 Renewable Energy Systems (United States), an international wind and solar power developer, has begun diversifying into large-scale storage and had built 70 MW of storage capacity in North America by early 2016.58 In May of that year, solar PV developer SkyPower (Canada) and BYD announced an agreement to bid for up to 750 MW of solar-plus-storage capacity in India’s upcoming tenders.59 E.ON continued to expand its industrial-scale battery technology operation during the year and announced plans in early 2017 for two projects (totalling nearly 20 MW of storage) at its existing wind farms in Texas.60

Also in 2016, German flywheel developer Stornetic presented an energy storage solution for wind farms that allows operators to balance output fluctuations over the long term and that could enable wind farms to provide grid services.61 The company also launched a 1 MW flywheel storage unit, quadrupling the output of its machine, and commenced a joint project with EDF (France) on advanced smart grid storage solutions.62 In late 2016, Stornetic announced that it had optimised its EnWheel system for transport use, enabling operators to store the braking energy of trains to power acceleration for departure from stations.63

Large increases in manufacturing scale, improvements in storage capacity and density, and reductions in material costs are working to push down the costs of batteries and other storage technologies.64 Between 2010 and 2015, the average price of lithium-ion batteries used in EVs fell 65%, to USD 350 per kWh.65 As of late 2016, lithium technology prices were as low as USD 1,600 to USD 1,900 per kW installed when deployed on a large scale (e.g., comparable to a 100 MW natural gas-fired power plant).66

Lead-acid batteries, which remain common for off-grid installations, have experienced an increase in lifespan through the integration of carbon. This advance has reduced the costs of lead-acid batteries dramatically.67 The costs of alternative chemistry batteries also have declined in recent years, due mostly to falling subcomponent costs and longer operating lives; these advances, in turn, have unlocked additional services and applications. For flow batteries, technology advancements are resulting in longer operating ranges (discharge time), and the introduction of larger-scale manufacturing is driving down prices.68 The costs of thermal and non-battery storage technologies, such as compressed air, vary widely; however, all have seen steady cost reductions.69

Several promising storage options were entering the pilot stage during 2016. The Stored Energy in the Sea project, led by Germany’s Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology, began piloting a novel pumped storage concept for large-scale storage of ocean energy. Researchers estimate that the concept, which uses water pressure to drive electro-mechanical pump components housed in submerged storage units, could deliver cycle efficiency and levelised costs of storage per kWh similar to conventional pumped storage.70 Also in Germany, GE won a contract to supply wind turbines for Naturstromspeicher Gaildorf, a pilot project combining wind energy and pumped storage. The base of each 3.4 MW turbine will act as a water reservoir; an additional lower reservoir pumped storage facility, which will use Voith (Germany) reversible Francis pump-turbine units, lies 200 metres below in a nearby valley. 71

Energy Storage Policies

Policies to support deployment of energy storage include policy-driven procurement targets, energy market reforms and utility mandates, as well as financial incentives such as grants, loans and tax credits. Generally, policies target either distributed, customer-sited behind-the-meter storage (residential and commercial) or large-scale utility projects in front of the meter. Few incentives exist, and as of end-2016 only a handful of governments had adopted targets for energy storage. For example, in 2016 New York City set a target of 100 MWh by 2020.72 However, energy storage is receiving increased attention and support from policy makers and regulators in a number of countries around the world.

To date, mandates for utility-scale capacity have been the most common form of support for energy storage. In the United States, electric utilities in California are required under a 2010 state mandate to procure a total of 1.3 GW of energy storage by 2020; this mandate was expanded by an additional 500 MW of energy storage in 2016.73 In addition, utilities in southern California were directed by the state’s Public Utilities Commission to quickly procure over 60 MW of electricity storage by year’s end to overcome an expected electricity shortfall due to a devastating natural gas leak discovered in late 2015.74

Other states and territories are following California’s lead. Oregon passed legislation in 2015 requiring that the state’s main utilities deploy 5 MWh of storage by 2020.75 In 2016, Massachusetts became the third US state to pass an energy storage mandate.76 Puerto Rico mandated in late 2013 that renewable energy project developers incorporate energy storage into new projects.77 In Canada, the province of Ontario has mandated the procurement of energy storage, with most projects designed to provide frequency regulations service or voltage support to improve grid functions; a two-part solicitation in late 2015 resulted in contracts for 50 MW of storage capacity.78

In 2016, countries also supported storage through tenders. For example, India called for its first tender for solar energy (300 MW of projects) that mandated the inclusion of a storage component.79 Suriname also held a tender for a solar PV project that included battery storage. 80


In part because electricity storage can be considered both generation and load (similar to supply and demand), regulations governing its role and function can differ greatly from one market to the next. To ensure regulatory consistency, in 2016 the EU’s Energy Commission proposed a regional definitioni for energy storage.81 In some countries, regulatory bodies are clarifying the rules for the participation of energy storage by removing barriers to participation and creating market structures for fast-responding resources. For example, in 2016 the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) began exploring regulations to further reduce market barriers to energy storage solutions. 82 This built upon FERC’s 2011 mandate to create compensation mechanisms for fast-response regulation service providers that can support the grid when frequency deviation occurs with either fast-response generation or stored energy.83

Some governments are using financial incentives to improve the cost-competitiveness of emerging storage technologies. Germany offers a variety of incentive programmes, including low-interest loans and grants for specific uses, customer segments and storage technologies. In 2016, Germany extended its incentive programmes for residential solar PV-linked storage through 2018.84 Elsewhere in Europe, Italy provides a tax rebate for battery storage in solar PV systems, and some cantons in Switzerland offer subsidies. 85 Sweden announced support for energy storage and smart grid technologies with investments of USD 5.5 million and USD 1 million (SEK 50 million and SEK 10 million) per year, respectively, with an initial outlay of USD 2.75 million (SEK 25 million) provided to energy storage in 2016.86

In Asia, Japan offers a national subsidy for residential batteries, and China has offered significant incentives, such as subsidies and domestic quotas, to spur development of a domestic storage industry.87 The Republic of Korea pledged in 2016 to invest USD 36 billion in clean energy by 2020, with 79% of the funds earmarked for deployment of renewable energy and 11% for energy storage.88

In the United States, an investment tax credit is provided for up to 30% of the value of a qualifying energy storage system. 89 In 2016, the country also awarded USD 18 million to six solar PV projects that will integrate energy storage.90 At the state level, California’s Self-Generation Incentive Program, which provides rebates for customer-sited generation and storage systems installed on the customer's side of the utility meter, allocates 75% of its annual USD 87 million budget to storage technologies and has been vital to the growth of customer-sited storage in the state.91 New York State offers incentives for commercial and industrial customers to install batteries to reduce peak load.92

On a smaller scale, the Australian cities of Adelaide and Melbourne have provided incentives for the installation of solar PV systems plus energy storage to increase self-consumption from solar projects.93

iStorage was defined as “the act of deferring an amount of the energy that was generated to the moment of use, either as final energy or converted into another energy carrier”. European Commission, Energy Storage – Proposed Policy Principles and Definition (Brussels: June 2016), i

Heat Pumps

Heat pumps are used mainly for space heating and cooling of buildings, as well as for some industrial heating and cooling applications. Heat pumps transfer heat from one area (source) to another (sink) using a refrigeration cycle driven by external energy, either electric or thermal. They provide efficient heating, cooling, humidity control and hot water for residential, commercial and industrial applications by drawing on one of three main sources: the ground, ambient air, or water bodies such as lakes, rivers or the sea. Heat pumps also can use waste heat from industrial processes, sewage water and buildings.

Depending on a heat pump’s inherent efficiency and on its external operating conditions, it has the potential to deliver significantly more energy than is used to drive it. A modern, electrically driven heat pump under optimal operating conditions (a modest “lift” in temperature from source to sink) can easily deliver three to five units of energy for every one unit of energy that it consumes. That incremental energy delivered is considered the renewable portion of the heat pump output (on a final energy basis)i. When the input energy is 100% renewable, so is the output of the heat pump.


Heat Pump Markets

The scale of the global heat pump market is difficult to assess due to the lack of data and to inconsistencies among existing datasets. Part of the reason for limited and fragmented data on heat pumps may be due to variation in how systems are classified. In moderate climates, where cooling demand is dominant, heat pumps generally are counted as air conditioning equipment, with a side benefit of dehumidification or provision of hot water. In cold climates, the heating service is much more important and thus heat pumps are counted as heating equipment, with cooling and dehumidification considered welcome byproducts. 94

Air-source heat pumps make up the largest share of the global heat pump market, representing more than 80% of the European marketii, followed by ground-source heat pumps. The vast majority (90%) of air-source units installed around the world are used primarily for cooling and for dehumidification in mild and warmer climates.95 However, global data for air-source installations are limited.

Most ground-source heat pumps are used for heating in colder climates, but they also can serve cooling and dehumidification loads.96 As of end-2014, the global stock of ground-source heat pumps represented an estimated 50.3 GWth of capacity, producing approximately 327 PJ (91 TWh) of output.97 The largest markets for heat pumps are the United States, China and Europe as a whole, where France, Germany, Italy and Sweden were the most significant national markets in 2016.98

Europe’s combined heat pump market (for both air- and ground-source) grew by about 12% in 2015 (the most recent year for which data are available), adding 890,000 units for a total of 8.4 million units installed.99 By the end of 2016, total European installed heat pump capacity reached about 73.6 GWth, producing an estimated 148 TWh of useful energy, of which about 94.7 TWhiii, or 64%, was derived from ambient air and the ground, and the rest was derived from input energy.100

The top 10 markets in Europe account for 90% of the region’s sales.101 As of end-2014, Sweden led the region for ground-source heat pump capacity with a total of 5.6 GWth in operation and 52 PJ (14.4 TWh) of output. 102 Sweden’s output implies a utilisation rate (capacity factor) of over 29%, compared to a global average of less than 21% and a US average of less than 13%. Differences in utilisation rates are explained by variations in climate and the sizing of systems (i.e., whether units are sized for heating load only or for peak-cooling load, which may result in oversizing of units for heating load).103


In recent years, relatively low oil prices have slowed heat pump sales in some markets, and for ground-source units in particular. In Germany, sales of ground-source heat pumps in 2015 (12,500 units and 22% of the total German heat pump market that year) declined by 8.1% relative to 2014, despite government support programmes. By contrast, air-to-water heat pumps showed a small increase of 1.3% in 2015.104 Finland also saw mixed results: the overall heat pump market grew 2.4% in 2016, to over 60,000 units, but the growth was all for air-source units. Finland’s sales of ground-source systems, which accounted for 14.1% of the heat pump market, declined by 7.8% in 2016.105

For the United States, the total market size is uncertain. As of late 2014, the market for ground-source heat pumps was growing at an estimated average rate of 8% annually, and a total of 1.4 million units was in operation, representing 16.8 GW th of capacity and an estimated 67 PJ (18.5 TWh) of output.106

China had approximately 11.8 GWth of ground-source heat pumps in place at the end of 2014, producing an estimated 66.7 PJ (14.4 TWh).107 Although sales of heat pumps (for heating) remain small in China – with fewer than 10,000 units sold in 2015 – they jumped three-fold that year relative to 2014.108

Elsewhere in Asia, Japan and the Republic of Korea also are significant heat pump markets. As of 2015, Japan had in place an estimated 100 MWth of ground-source heat pumps.109 The Republic of Korea had in place nearly 800 MWth of heat pump capacity by the end of 2014.110 In 2015, the country’s stock grew by about 10%, reaching 0.3 million units.111 It is estimated that the heat pump market share represents 3-4% of the country’s 7 million residential, commercial, industrial and public buildings.112Demand for heat pumps is spurred by ever-stricter efficiency standards for building envelopes. Well-insulated and air-tight buildings can be heated, cooled and dehumidified at relatively low thermal differentials (“lift” from source to sink), creating a particular synergy between heat pumps and efficient building design. Moreover, as building design and construction become more efficient, smaller heat pumps are required, reducing initial system cost and further improving the competitiveness of heat pumps relative to conventional fossil fuel systems. The positive effect of building codes has been seen mainly in new construction; however, building renovations invite the use of heat pumps, either as full replacements or as hybrid solutions that supplement existing heating and cooling systems.113

The potential for heat pumps in industrial applications is comparable to that in residential and commercial applications. However, availability of data for the industrial segment is even more limited.

Heat Pump Industry

The industry is characterised by a large number of relatively small entities, although consolidation accelerated in 2016. Manufacturers have pursued acquisitions mainly to gain access to markets and to increase market share, as well as to access know-how and to complement existing product portfolios.

In recent years, the global heat pump industry has grown in scale and scope as major manufacturers from Europe, China and the United States have extended their areas of activity both geographically and sectorally (integrating heating and cooling, as well as ventilation and, increasingly, dehumidification). A typical example is the acquisition of air conditioning and ventilation companies by boiler manufacturers, and vice versa. US and Chinese companies have acquired companies in Europe, and European companies have invested in the United States and Asia.114 Among the notable developments in 2016, Midea Group (China) acquired an 80% stake in Clivet (Italy), UTC (United States) completed a 70% acquisition of the Italian HVAC company Riello Group S.p.A., and Mitsubishi (Japan) acquired DeLclima (Italy) and its subsidiaries Climavenata and RC Group.115 Swedish heat pump maker Nibe completed several acquisitions, including US-based Climate Control Group and the heat pump operations of Enertech (United Kingdom).116

Other notable trends in the industry include the combination of heat pump technologies with ventilation, and the integration of heat pump technologies and solar PV to increase on-site consumption of distributed generation. Further synergies are suggested by the correlation between solar irradiation and cooling load, and the opportunity to use the “waste” heat from heat pump cooling for domestic hot water production.117

Manufacturers of heat pumps and solar PV inverters are co-operating to develop standards that enable a connected and optimised operation of heat pump and solar PV systems. In some instances, heat pumps are being configured to provide demand-response services to “smart” electric grids, in order to take advantage of their inherent operational flexibility.118 Heat pumps that use water as a thermal medium for heating and cooling employ water storage tanks that can aid in this regard.

Growing market penetration and increasing sales of heat pumps also are resulting in cost reductions for components and systems due to technical progress and economies of scale. A doubling of the installed heat pump stock is expected to result in a 20% cost reduction of heat pumps.119

Heat Pump Policies

In addition to indirect support provided by energy efficiency standards and building codes, there are some limited examples of support policies specific to heat pumps, mostly in the form of fiscal incentives such as grants, loans and tax credits. Drivers for heat pump support policies include improvements in energy efficiency of space heating, increased use of renewable energy and reductions in local air pollution.120

Several incentives were adopted in Europe in 2016 to support the use of heat pumps as well as renewable heat technologies. In the Netherlands, a new building energy support scheme introduced grants for heat pumps, as well for biomass boilers and solar thermal systems.121 Romania relaunched a subsidy scheme providing incentives of USD 700 to USD 1,870 (RON 3,000 to RON 8,000) for the installation of heat pumps (and solar thermal systems), and the Slovak Republic adopted a new grant scheme that promotes heat pumps (and solar thermal systems).122

Germany has backed up its commitment to increase its share of renewable energy in the heating market by 2020 to 14% by providing incentives for heat pumps (among other technologies) under its Market Incentive Program. In 2015, the programme provided about USD 13.1 million (about EUR 12 million), which supported the installation of 3,700 heat pumps (equivalent to about 20% of average system cost), about half of which were air-source heat pumps.123

Since 2014, the UK Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) – similar to feed-in tariffs for electricity generation – has provided incentive payments for the heat output of renewable heat technologies, including the renewable portion of heat pump output. Starting in 2017, tariffs paid were set to rise, alongside limits on annual heat demand for eligible residential air- and ground-source systems (20 MWh and 30 MWh, respectively) and a requirement to meter electrical input in all residential systems in order to provide better information on actual system performance.124

The United States also has enacted policies to support heat pump markets. For example, a 10% corporate tax credit for ground-source heat pumps was in place as of early 2017, as was an accelerated depreciation scheme for businesses; a 30% federal tax credit for ground-source heat pumps expired at the end of 2016.125 In addition, many US states offer direct support for ground-source heat pumps in the form of tax incentives, rebates, grants or loans.126 Through the NYC Retrofit Accelerator, New York encourages fuel switching away from natural gas for heat and hot water, favouring heat pumps and biofuels by providing information to consumers, as well as access to both public and private finance.127

In China, the Beijing municipal government began providing a subsidy of approximately USD 3,600 (RMB 25,000) per household to replace 150,000 coal boilers with air-source heat pumps during 2016.128 The effort was successfully completed at year’s end. Tianjin, Shandong and Hebei provinces planned to follow with similar incentives in 2017.129

iThe total share of renewable energy delivered by a heat pump on a primary energy basis depends on the efficiency of the heat pump and on its operating conditions, as well as on the composition of the energy used to drive the heat pump. A heat pump operating at a performance factor of four, driven by electricity from a thermal plant at 40% efficiency, provides about 1.6 units of final energy for every 1 unit of primary energy consumed (4/(1/0.4) = 1.6). i

iiMarket data for Europe from the European Heat Pump Association (EHPA), which includes 19 EU countries plus Norway and Switzerland, are indicative for all of Europe. Countries not covered are small or do not have a method to collect data. ii

iiiThis is based on an average performance factor of 2.77, which implies that the installed heat pump stock delivers 2.77 units of thermal output for each unit of energy input. EHPA, European Heat Pump Market and Statistics Report 2016 (Brussels: 2016), iii

Electric Vehicles

Electric vehicles encompass any road-, rail-, sea- and air-based transport vehicles that use electric drive and can take an electric charge from an external source, or hydrogen in the case of fuel cell EVs. Some EV technologies are hybridised with fossil fuel engines (for example, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or PHEVs), while others use only electric power via a battery (battery EVs). A third variant uses fuel cells to convert hydrogen into electricity.

Beyond offering the prospect to reduce fossil fuel use in the transport sector, EVs can create a new market for renewable electricity. They can help integrate growing quantities of variable renewable energy by using “smart” EV charging strategies that communicate with grid operators and energy markets to promote flexibility, allowing for the use of generation that otherwise might be curtailed.130 Also, EVs have the potential to send electricity back to the grid during periods of high demand and to substitute for stand-alone customer-sited electric energy storage.

Electric Vehicle Markets

Electrification of the transport sector expanded during 2016, enabling greater integration of renewable energy in the form of electricity for trains, light rail, trams as well as two- and four-wheeled EVs. Political interest in electric mobility increased following the 2015 Paris Agreement, which sparked a broader debate on accelerating electrification of the sector. 131


Global deployment of EVs for road transport, and particularly passenger vehicles, has grown rapidly in recent years. In 2016, global sales reached an estimated 775,000 units, and more than 2 million passenger EVs were on the world’s roads by year’s end.132 ( See Figure 52.) The EV passenger car market (including PHEVs) accounted for around 1% of global passenger car sales in 2016.133 The top five countries for total passenger EV deployment in 2016 were China, the United States, Japan, Norway and the Netherlands; together, they accounted for 78% of the year’s global sales.134 China and the United States are the market leaders in unit sales, while Norway is well ahead of all other countries in terms of market penetration.135

China’s market has seen dramatic growth in recent years, with EV sales increasing from about 11,600 vehicles in 2012 to more than 350,000 in 2016.136 China surpassed the United States in 2016 to become the country with the most passenger EVs on its roads, with more than 650,000 units in use by year’s end.137

In the United States, sales were up 38%, following a decline of more than 5% during 2015 (despite federal and state subsidies) due to the drop in petrol prices.138 An estimated 159,000 vehicles were added to the nation’s fleet in 2016.139

Figure 52. Global Passenger Electric Vehicle Market (Including PHEVs), 2012-2016


By the end of 2016, 2 million passenger EVs were on the world's roads. EVs accounted for around 1% of global passenger car sales.

Source: See endnote 132 for this chapter.

In most countries, even those with strong incentives, EVs continue to represent a small share of passenger vehicle sales. Norway is the only market in which EVs have reached a mass market stage, driven by a set of strong government incentives that include EV exemption from sales and registration taxes, as well as the construction of an extensive charging infrastructure. 140 In 2016, EVs represented 29% of new passenger vehicle registrations in Norway, followed by Iceland with a market share of 6%.141 Because EV sales still depend heavily on incentives, any disruptions in policy (or changes in fuel costs) can cause large shifts between years, as was seen in 2015 in the Netherlands, where an announced incentive reduction for PHEVs caused a jump in demand, followed by a sharp contraction in market share in 2016.142

Although electrically driven passenger cars have experienced the most rapid market growth in recent years, EVs also come in the form of trains, trams, buses, two- and three-wheeled vehicles and others, including some marine vessels. In Europe, some 5,500 electric buses were on the road as of end-2016, around 90% of which were connected via overhead wire, and China also appears to have a robust and rapidly growing market for electric buses.143 In most other countries, cities and transit companies are experimenting with only several units at a time. China also was home to an estimated 235 million electric two-wheelers based on lead-acid battery technology in 2015.144

Beyond the primary motivations to date for electrification of transport – reduced fossil fuel use and local air pollution – several countries, municipalities, EV manufacturers and electric utilities are experimenting with “smart” charging and vehicle-to-grid technologies that will enable EVs to contribute to grid storage, particularly from variable renewable energy sources. The Netherlands is becoming an international leader in the use of variable renewables for EV charging, or “smart charging”. By late 2016, 325 Dutch municipalities, several companies, universities and grid operators had joined the Living Lab Smart Charging platform, with the ultimate goal of ensuring that all EVs in the country are powered by solar and wind energy. The Living Lab, supported by the Dutch government, is converting existing charging stations and installing thousands of new “Smart Charging Ready” charging points, which are used for research and testing, with the aim of developing international standards based on the programme’s findings and innovations. As part of this effort, the Lombok neighbourhood of Utrecht partnered with vehicle manufacturer Renault (France) to test the vehicle-to-grid concept, using EVs as solar power storage for reinjection to the grid when the sun is not shining.145

Significant challenges remain to scaling up markets for EVs. Some of the most important include vehicle range, limited availability (in most locations) of charging infrastructure, and a lack of uniform charging standards.146 As of 2016, there were three primary plug types for rapid charging of EVs: the CHAdeMO network, which works only with Asian-made vehicles; the SAE Combo plug, which fits in German and some US-made vehicles; and Tesla’s Supercharger network, which fits only Tesla vehicles.147 These potential standards all compete in the marketplace.148 Regulatory issues surrounding charging infrastructure also remained a barrier to electrification of the transport sector during 2016.149

With such rapid growth in the EV market, electricity use for transport is growing as well. By one estimate, full electrification of the entire European car fleet in operation in 2015 would consume about 800 TWh of electricity annually, which would represent a 24.3% increase in electricity demand that year.150 With a fleet of this scale, uncontrolled vehicle charging could exacerbate load peaks on the regional power grid by a significant margin. Conversely, if vehicle charging were shifted to off-peak hours, and if it managed to coincide with renewable power generation, the increase in electricity demand associated with EVs could be accommodated.151

Electric Vehicle Industry

By the end of 2016, the global market leader among passenger EV manufacturers was China-based BYD, which sold 100,000 vehicles during the year and achieved a 13% global market share.152 The company started as a battery manufacturer in 1995 and is a relative newcomer in the automotive industry.153 Renault-Nissan (France-Japan) sold about 86,000 EVs in 2016, and as of August that year it was the leader in cumulative sales, with a total of 350,000 units. 154 This was followed by Tesla (United States) with around 76,000 EVs sold, and BMW (Germany) with 62,000 units sold. 155

Several long-established vehicle manufacturers have realigned their strategies, with plans to increase the share of EVs in their future sales. In 2016, Volkswagen Group (Germany), announced plans to bring more than 30 pure-electric models to market and to sell 2-3 million EVs annually by 2025, equivalent to 20-25% of its total projected sales.156 As part of this strategy, the company plans to develop battery technology as a new core competency and has expressed interest in building its own battery factory.157 Daimler AG (Germany) announced in 2016 that it would invest USD 10.5 billion (EUR 10 billion) in EVs, and the company expects to have 10 different models by 2022.158

The emergence of electric drives as an alternative to internal combustion engines has opened opportunities for new entrants to the automotive market. For example, Tesla and BYD quickly became leaders in EV manufacturing; Tesla was founded as an EV company in 2003, and BYD began the same year as a battery manufacturer.159 Apple (United States) also is investing in EVs, spending more on R&D in recent years for vehicles and related services than it did on several other Apple products combined.160

In addition, several other global consumer electronic companies have announced their interest in entering the EV market; in China alone, some 200 mostly small companies were reported to be developing and marketing EVs as of late 2016.161

Driving range continues to be perceived as a relative handicap for EVs, but manufacturers continue to advance battery technologies to increase range. In 2016, for example, two mid-priced battery-EV models from Renault-Nissan and General Motors (United States) entered the market with ranges of more than 300 kilometres each.162 In addition, several companies announced plans to launch vehicles with equal or greater range in the coming years. By late 2016, nearly 500,000 reservations had been made for Tesla’s Model 3 (with a presumed range over 300 kilometres), which the company claims will enter production in 2017.163 Also in 2016, Daimler AG announced its EQ battery EV, which has a range of up to 500 kilometres and is slated to launch before the end of the decade, and Volkswagen Group introduced a concept e-Golf model with a range of up to 600 kilometres to come on the market in 2020 at a similar cost to its diesel-based equivalent.164

The electric vehicle industry is assuming an active role in addressing the shortage of charging facilities. In Europe, the EV charging infrastructure has expanded rapidly, from 30,000 stations in 2014 to 100,000 stations in 2016, including 10,000 fast-charging stations. In late 2016, auto manufacturers BMW Group (Germany), Daimler AG, Ford Motor Company (United States) and Volkswagen Group announced a joint venture to deploy, starting in 2017, a network of high-powered 350 kW charging stations in Europe to enable long-range travel for EVs.165 This charging capacity is more than double the 2016 capability of Tesla Superchargers and allows EVs with a range of 400 kilometres to reach a full charge in 12 minutes.166 In the United States, in 2016 and early 2017, Nissan and BMW announced plans to install fast-charging stations across the country that will be equipped to work with both CHAdeMO and SAE Combo connectors.167 US electric utilities have joined the effort to expand charging infrastructure, but some have been blocked by regulators over concerns about who should pay for it.168

Reducing battery costs is an important driver for EV market development, although few manufacturers have provided details on these costs. Also relevant to overall battery costs, and to EV competitiveness in general, are the trends towards longer battery lifetimes and higher energy storage densities.169 General Motors announced in 2016 that its battery cell cost for the Chevrolet Bolt was a surprisingly low USD 145 per kWh, whereas an expert had estimated the price at USD 215 per kWh.170 As of early 2017, battery sizes for small and mid-sized battery EVs ranged from 30 kWh up to a maximum of 60 kWh (for the Chevrolet Bolt), and Tesla was offering up to 100 kWh battery capacity. Manufacturers have been taking advantage of lower battery prices to increase the range of EVs.171

Beyond passenger cars, work continued on development of EVs for public transit and freight transport. Siemens (Germany) made advances with its long-distance pure-electric trucks, while companies in California, Singapore and Switzerland explored the potential of autonomous electric buses.172


Exploration of methods to integrate renewable energy into charging stations for electric cars expanded in 2016, although many projects are pilot or demonstration, and integration remains relatively small scale. In 2016 installation of what is reportedly the world’s first solar controlled, bi-directional charging station for EVs was completed in Utrecht, the Netherlands, as part of that country’s Living Lab programme.173 Even where renewable energy is not directly available, some EV service providers (e.g., car sharing companies in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands) have begun offering a provision for buying renewable electricity.174 Renewables also are being used to charge public transit systems. In 2016, Chile announced that Santiago’s subway system (the second largest in Latin America, following Mexico City's) will be powered mostly by solar PV (42%) and wind energy (18%) as of 2018.175


In addition, an increasing number of companies was working in 2016 to integrate renewable energy technology directly into vehicles. For example, Hanergy Holding Group (China) introduced four concept EVs that use solar power to extend their range, with plans to produce the vehicles commercially within three years.176 Uganda launched Africa’s first solar-powered bus (battery electric with solar extending the range); an Australian company announced plans to launch a solar-powered jeepney for use in the Philippines; and an inexpensive solar-powered three-wheeled ambulance was set to provide service to rural areas of Bangladesh before the end of 2017.177 Also in 2016, a solar-powered aircraft, the Solar Impulse 2, successfully completed an around-the-world flight after a 16-month voyage.178

Electric Vehicle Policies

The drivers for enacting policies to support EV use are varied. They include enhancing energy security, reducing transport-related carbon emissions and increasing opportunities for sustainable economic growth.179 For cities in particular, EV support policies aim to reduce local air pollution and thereby to improve public health.180

Several countries, states and provinces have issued targets for electric vehicles. In many instances these are articulated in terms of “zero-emission vehicles” (ZEVsi ), which is largely synonymous with EVs, including PHEVs. The international ZEV Alliance, comprising several European countries and North American states and provinces, announced in late 2015 a common goal to achieve zero emissions for all new cars by 2050.181

Within a shorter time frame, the Netherlands set targets in 2016 for 10% of new cars to be EVs by 2020, 50% by 2025 and 100% by 2035.182 Norway is committed to all new passenger cars, city buses and light vans being ZEVs by 2025.183 In April 2015, the country met its initial target – to reach 50,000 ZEVs – three years early.184 In the United Kingdom, all new cars and vans must be ZEVs by 2040, with the goal that nearly all cars and vans on the road by 2050 will be ZEVs.185

In Asia, India aims to have 6 million EVs (including hybrids) on the road by 2020 under its National Electric Mobility Mission. 186 China’s Technical Roadmap for Energy Saving Vehicles, issued in October 2016, set a target for 7% EV sales by 2020 and 40% EV sales (an estimated 15 million units) by 2030.187 The country also has a target for the development of charging infrastructure, aiming for 12,000 charging stations across China to serve 5 million EVs by 2020.188

In the United States, California and several other states require ZEVs to make up around 15% of new car sales by 2025. 189 California also requires that the renewable energy share of hydrogen for vehicles increase to 33% by 2022.190

Fiscal incentives also are being used to advance EV use. In Europe, Germany launched a support scheme for EVs in 2016 that includes purchase grants and funding to expand recharging infrastructure, and, as of early 2017, Austria offered a purchase premium for EVs charged with 100% renewable electricity.191 In Asia, Japan offers subsidies for the purchase of low-emissions vehicles, including EVs.192 During 2015, China spent USD 4.5 billion in subsidies for the purchase of EVs, with plans to gradually phase out the programmes by 2021.193 While China’s policy has increased sales substantially, there have been reports of widespread cheating.194 The country also has invested significant funds in creating fully integrated domestic manufacturing companies over the years. 195

Some cities are developing zero-emission (at the tailpipe) transport strategies. Amsterdam in the Netherlands has committed to becoming a zero-emission city by 2025; starting in 2018, it will replace all 200 public transit buses with electric buses. In addition, the city aims to replace 4,000 taxis with ZEVs under the Clean Taxis for Amsterdam covenant, and similar agreements are in place with freight and delivery companies.196 In China, Taiyuan became the country’s first city to replace its entire taxi fleet with EVs and the city funded a network of 1,800 charging stations.197 By late 2016, at least 14 Chinese cities, including Beijing and Shanghai, offered subsidies to encourage development of charging stations.198 In addition, EVs in Beijing are exempt from restrictions on internal combustion vehicles, which are not permitted to drive one day per week and for which new licence plates are restricted and allocated by lottery.199

iThe term “zero-emission vehicle” is largely synonymous with EV under the California (US) regulations and includes plug-in electric as well as battery-electric vehicles (and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles). Therefore, ZEVs are generally not zero-emission vehicles “at the tailpipe” or by primary energy source (grid power), but they have the potential to be virtually zero-emission if powered by renewable energy. i


  1. US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability, Insights Into Advanced Distribution Management Systems (Washington, DC: February, 2015),
  2. M. Stanley Whittingham, “History, evolution, and future status of energy storage”, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 100, Special Centennial Issue (May 2012): 1518-34,
  3. See, for example, Clean Energy Ministerial, “Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI)”,, viewed 26 February 2017; California Air Resources Board, “Zero Emission Vehicle Program”,, viewed 26 February 2017.3
  4. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), “Chapter 4 – Innovations in technology”, in REthinking Energy 2017: Accelerating the Global Energy Transformation (Abu Dhabi: 2017),
  5. Jacquelin Cochran et al., Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems (Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 2014),; David Jacobs et al., RE-TRANSITION: Transitioning to Policy Frameworks for Cost-Competitive Renewables (Utrecht, The Netherlands: IEA Technology Collaboration Programme for Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD), 2016),; IRENA, “Chapter 2 – Policies, regulations and market design”, in REthinking Energy 2017, op. cit. note 4; Garrett Fitzgerald, Chris Nelder and James Newcomb, Electric Vehicles as Distributed Energy Resources (Basalt, CO: Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI), 2016),; Garrett Fitzgerald et al., The Economics of Battery Energy Storage: How Multi-use, Customer-sited Batteries Deliver the Most Services and Value to Customers and the Grid (Basalt, CO: RMI, 2015),; Ramteen Sioshansi, Paul Denholm and Thomas Jenkin, “Market and policy barriers to deployment of energy storage”, Economics of Energy and Environmental Policy, vol. 1, no. 2 (2012), p. 47,
  6. Craig Morris and Martin Pehnt, “Sector coupling”, in Energy Transition – The German Energiewende Book (2016),; European Political Strategy Center, Toward Low-Emission Mobility: Driving the Modernisation of the EU Economy, EPSC Strategic Notes (Brussels: 20 July 2016),; Henrik Klinge Jacobsen and Stephanie Ropenus, Agora Energiewende, “A Snapshot of the Danish Energy Transition in the Power Sector: An Overview”, presentation, 12 November 2015,; Kurt Rohrig, Fraunhofer Institute for Wind and Energy System Technology, and Dietrich Schmidt, Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, “Coupling the Electricity and Heat Sectors: The Key to the Transformation of the Energy System”, presentation at Workshop on Renewables and Energy Systems Integration, Golden, CO, September 2014,
  7. IRENA, op. cit. note 4; Fitzgerald, Nelder and Newcomb, op. cit. note 5; Fitzgerald et al., op. cit. note 5; Sioshansi, Denholm and Jenkin, op. cit. note 5. Also based on input from Matthijs van Leeuwen, Norton Rose Fulbright LLP, and from Owen R. Zinaman, NREL, Golden, CO, personal communications with REN21, January-March 2017.7
  8. IRENA, REthinking Energy 2017, op. cit. note 4, p. 76.8
  9. Sioshansi, Denholm and Jenkin, op. cit. note 5. Figure 49 based on input from Matthijs van Leeuwen, Norton Rose Fulbright LLP, Amsterdam, personal communication with REN21, March 2017.9
  10. Insight Energy, Policy Report – Business Models for Flexible Production and Storage, prepared for European Commission (Brussels: 2015),; Scott P. Burger and Max Luke, Business Models for Distributed Energy Resources: A Review and Empirical Analysis (Cambridge, MA: MIT Energy Initiative, 2016),
  11. DOE, Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability, “DOE Global Energy Storage Database”,, viewed January 2017.11
  12. International Energy Agency (IEA), Technology Roadmap – Energy Storage (Paris: March 2014),; IRENA, Thermal Energy Storage – Technology Brief (Abu Dhabi: 2013),
  13. DOE, op. cit. note 11. Downward adjustment was made for one 150 MW molten salt thermal storage installation in the United States, which was not built; pumped storage total of 150 GW from International Hydropower Association (IHA), 2017 Key Trends in Hydropower (London: 2017),; total of 159.5 GW of pumped storage, including mixed plants, from IRENA, Renewable Capacity Statistics 2017 (Abu Dhabi: April 2017), Figure 52 based on data from DOE, op. cit. note 1. Downwards adjustment made for one 150 MW molten salt thermal storage installation in the United States, which was not built; and from IHA, op. cit. this note.13
  14. Pumped storage total of 150 GW from IHA, op. cit. note 13; total of 159.5 GW of pumped storage, including mixed plants, from IRENA, op. cit. note 13.14
  15. DOE, op. cit. note 11. Downwards adjustment made for one 150 MW molten salt thermal storage installation in the United States, which was not built.15
  16. DOE, Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability, “DOE Global Energy Storage Database: Projects”,, viewed 20 March 2017.16
  17. Ibid.17
  18. Ibid.18
  19. Ibid.19
  20. Ibid.20
  21. Ibid. Figure 51 based on DOE, op. cit. note 11. Downwards adjustment made for one 150 MW molten salt thermal storage installation in the United States, which was not built.21
  22. Ibid.22
  23. Rob Nikolewski, “Utilities meet tight energy storage deadline”, San Diego Union-Tribune, 13 September 2016,
  24. GTM Research, US Energy Storage Monitor: 2016 Year in Review and Q1 2017 Executive Summary (March 2017), p. 10,
  25. Jason Deign, “Who will benefit from South Korea’s solar-plus-storage incentive?” Greentech Media, 5 October 2016,
  26. Namgil Paik, KEPCO, “KEPCO’s Frequency Regulation Energy Storage System Project”, presentation at IEA-ISGAN Workshop, Paris, 11 October 2016,
  27. DOE, Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability, “DOE Global Energy Storage Database: Data visualization”,, updated 16 August 2016.27
  28. Takuya Yamazaki, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Japan Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, “Japan’s Electricity Market Reform and Beyond”, presentation, 7 July 2015,
  29. DOE, op. cit. note 27.29
  30. DOE, op. cit. note 11.30
  31. Kai-Philipp Kairies et al., Wissenschaftliches Mess- und Evaluierungsprogramm Solarstromspeicher, Jahresberricht 2016 (Aachen, Germany: Stromrichter-technik und Elektrische Antriebe, RWTH Aachen University, prepared for Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi), 2016), p. 45,; Sebastian Hermann, German Environment Agency, personal communication with REN21, February 2017.31
  32. Martin Ammon, EuPD Research, “Status Quo and Potentials for the Residential Segment”, presentation at European PV and Energy Storage Market Briefing, Frankfurt, Germany, 16 February 2017, slides 20, 21; EuPD Research, “The market is talking about Tesla, German battery storage companies leading in market shares”, press release (Bonn: 26 October 2016),
  33. AES Energy Storage, “AES Netherlands Advancion energy storage array now serving European grid”, press release (Vlissingen, The Netherlands: 13 January 2016),
  34. National Grid, “EFR tender results of 26 August 2016”,, viewed 26 February 2017; Jeff St. John, “UK’s National Grid goes big into energy storage with 201 MW of fast-acting batteries”, Greentech Media, 30 August 2016,
  35. China National Energy Administration, “Notification on Promoting the Participation of Energy Storage in the Compensation (Market) Mechanism of Electric Power Ancillary Services in the Three Northern China Regions” (Beijing: 2016), See also Andy Colthorpe, “China announced nearly 600MW of energy storage in Q3 2016”, Energy Storage News, 15 December 2016,
  36. Australian Energy Council, Renewable Energy in Australia: How Do We Really Compare? (Melbourne: 2015),; Sophie Vorrath, “Mercedes Benz set to launch home battery storage in Australia”, One Step Off the Grid, 29 June 2016,
  37. See, for example, Peter Maloney, “One good year deserves another: energy storage in 2016”, Renewable Energy World, 27 January 2016,
  38. Australian Renewable Energy Agency, Energy Storage Study: Funding Knowledge and Sharing Priorities (Canberra: 2015), pp. 63-68,
  39. Nigel Morris, “Battery storage: Is Australia on the track to be the world’s biggest market?” One Step Off the Grid, 8 February 2017,
  40. ”CSP plant illuminated Bokpoort community at official inauguration”, ESI Africa, 15 March 2016,; “Khi Solar One kicks into commercial operation”, ESI Africa, 8 February 2016,; “SA thermal solar plant hits project milestone”, ESI Africa, 30 March 2016,
  41. Jennifer Zhang, “Shouhang Dunhang 10MW molten salt tower CSP plant will put into operation, open to visitors on December 29th”, CSP Plaza, 9 November 2016,; NREL, “SunCan Dunhuang 10 MW Phase 1”, 11 January 2017,
  42. Werner Weiss, Institute for Sustainable Technologies (AEE INTEC), Gleisdorf, Austria, personal communication with REN21, 31 January 2017.42
  43. Ibid.43
  44. RWE International, “Innogy signs contract to acquire BELECTRIC Solar & Battery”, press release (Essen, Germany: 29 August 2016),; Saft, “Total takes control of Saft Groupe after the successful tender offer which will be reopened from July 19 to August 2, 2016”, press release (Paris: 18 July 2016),
  45. Zachary Shahan, “Panasonic dominates EV battery cell production rankings… with Gigafactory on Horizon”, CleanTechnica, 31 July 2016,
  46. Dee-Ann Durbin, “Tesla opens Gigafactory to expand battery production, sales”, Bloomberg, 27 July 2016,; Karl-Erik Stromsta, “Tesla begins turning out battery cells at Gigafactory”, Recharge News, 4 January 2017,
  47. Navigant Research, “LG Chem, Panasonic, and Samsung SDI score highest in assessment of lithium ion battery manufacturers”, press release (Boulder, CO: 3 December 2015),
  48. Jie Ma, “Battery maker helping power China electric car boom plans IPO”, Bloomberg, 1 September 2016,
  49. Daimler, “Daimler starts deliveries of Mercedes-Benz energy storage units for private homes”, press release (Stuttgart/Kamenz: 22 April 2016),; Ian Clover, “Over to you, storage”, PV Magazine, 11 November 2016,
  50. Jason Deign, “Germany’s second-biggest utility plans to launch a residential solar-plus-storage offering”, Greentech Media, 4 March 2016,; E.ON, “About us: 2000-2016”,, viewed 10 March 2017.50
  51. Julia Pyper, “Sonnen launches a home battery for self-consumption at a 40% reduced cost”, Greentech Media, 7 July 2016,
  52. EuPD Research, op. cit. note 32.52
  53. “California companies form partnerships for solar+storage”, Renewable Energy World, 3 May 2016,; “Verengo Solar and Swell Energy announce residential energy storage partnership”, Market Wired, 27 April 2016,; Clover, op. cit. note 49.53
  54. Sungrow, “Sungrow-Samsung SDI officially launches”, press release (Hefei, China: 12 July 2016),
  55. James Paton, “Enphase says Australia energy storage demand twice its forecast”, Renewable Energy World, 1 June 2016,
  56. Brian Parkin, “GE Ventures buys stake in Sonnen to boost position in solar energy storage market”, Renewable Energy World, 6 June 2016,; Bernd Radowitz, “Envision takes stake in Sonnen in $85m financing round”, Recharge News, updated 25 October 2016,
  57. William Steel, “Tesla Powerpack arrives in Europe”, Renewable Energy World, 29 December 2016,; “Sungrow successfully installs the world’s largest PV & energy storage microgrid plant”, Penn Energy, 26 October 2016,
  58. “Solar power deals and company news”, Recharge News, updated 25 April 2016,
  59. SkyPower, “SkyPower enters into agreement with BYD to submit joint bid for 750 MW of solar energy development in India”, press release (Vancouver: 13 May 2016),; see also “Solar power deals and company news”, Recharge News, 9 May 2016,
  60. E.ON already has a grid-connected battery project under way in Arizona, from E.ON, “E.ON aims to establish itself as an energy storage provider for the US market”, press release (Essen, Germany: 3 March 2017),
  61. Stornetic, “Wind firming with flywheels”, press release (Jülich, Germany: 26 September 2016),
  62. Stornetic, “Stornetic launches new megawatt energy storage unit”, press release (Jülich, Germany: 15 February 2016),; EDF and Stornetic, “EDF and Stornetic start project on advanced smart grids storage solutions”, press release (Paris and Jülich, Germany: 17 November 2016),
  63. James Blackman, “German firm touts flywheel storage system for train operators”, Energy Storage News, 12 September 2016,
  64. Lazard’s Levelized Cost of Storage Version 2.0 (December 2016), pp. 19-21,
  65. McKinsey & Company and Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), An Integrated Perspective on the Future of Mobility (October 2016), p. 15,
  66. Strategen estimates based on projected cost information collected from vendors and public information sources.66
  67. Lazard’s Levelized Cost of Storage Version 2.0, op. cit. note 64.67
  68. Ibid.68
  69. Ibid.69
  70. William Steel, “Storing energy in the sea – a new design for marine energy storage”, Renewable Energy World, 9 September 2016,
  71. Sara Knight, “Germany: GE has won a contract to supply the turbines for a novel pilot project combining wind energy with a hydro pumped storage plant”, Windpower Monthly, 30 September 2016,; Elizabeth Ingram, “Pilot project combining wind and pumped storage hydro under construction in Germany”, Hydro World, 6 October 2016,
  72. Peter Maloney, “NYC targets 100 MWh energy storage by 2020”, Utility Dive, 28 September 2016,
  73. Robert Walton, “Facing stricter climate goals, California passes 4 bills to boost energy storage”, Utility Dive, 2 September 2016,
  74. Rob Nikolewski, “Utilities meet tight energy storage deadline”, San Diego Union-Tribune, 13 September 2016,
  75. Peter Maloney, “One good year deserves another: energy storage in 2016”, Renewable Energy World, 27 January 2016,
  76. Glenn Meyers, “Massachusetts passes 3rd US energy storage mandate”, CleanTechnica, 12 August 2016,
  77. Minimum Technical Requirement regulations issued by government-owned Puerto Rican electric power company Autoridad de Energia Electrica, from Andy Colthorpe, “Puerto Rico introduces mandate for energy storage in new renewable projects”, PV-Tech, 17 December 2013,
  78. Maloney, op. cit. note 75.78
  79. The policy aims to install 100 MW of capacity in Andhra Pradesh and 200 MW in Karnataka. Saurabh, “India to tender 300 MW solar power storage tender”, Cleantechies, 31 July 2016,
  80. Suriname from Roger Sallent, Inter-American Development Bank, personal communication with REN21, 2 December 2016.80
  81. European Commission, Energy Storage: Proposed Policy Principles and Definition (Brussels: June 2016),
  82. US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), “Notice of Proposed Rulemaking”, 17 November 2016,
  83. FERC, “Order 755”, 20 October 2011,
  84. “Germany’s solar+storage subsidy extended to 2018”, PV Magazine, 22 February 2016,; IEA/IRENA Joint Policies and Measures Database, “Subsidy for solar PV with storage installations”, 18 March 2016,
  85. IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (IEA-PVPS), Trends in Photovoltaic Applications, 2016: Survey Report of Selected IEA Countries Between 1992 and 2015 (Paris: 2016), p. 13,
  86. Government of Sweden, “Focus on investments in solar cells and new technology”, 21 September 2015,
  87. IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 85, p. 44; “India not doing enough to capture energy storage opportunity”, Bridge to India, 14 March 2017,
  88. Seerat Chabba, “South Korea to invest $36 billion in renewable energy by 2020”, International Business Times, 5 July 2016,
  89. Susan Kraemer, “When is energy storage eligible for the 30 percent ITC”, Renewable Energy World, 17 February 2016,
  90. 25X’25, “DOE announces $18 million to develop solar storage solutions”, Weekly REsource, 22 January 2016.90
  91. California Public Utilities Commission, “Self-Generation Incentive Program”,, viewed 20 March 2017.91
  92. The incentive was launched in May 2014 by the New York State Energy Research and Development Agency, from Maloney, op. cit. note 75.92
  93. Adelaide City Council website,; IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 85, p. 44.93
  94. European Heat Pump Association (EHPA), personal communication with REN21, November 2016-March 2017.94
  95. IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2016 (Paris: 2016), p. 241.95
  96. Ibid., p. 241.96
  97. John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd, “Direct utilization of geothermal energy 2015 worldwide review”, Geothermics, vol. 60 (March 2016), pp. 66-93,
  98. Top European markets from EHPA, op. cit. note 94.98
  99. EHPA, European Heat Pump Market and Statistics Report 2016 (Brussels: 2016).99
  100. Ibid.100
  101. Ibid.101
  102. Lund and Boyd, op. cit. note 97. Top European markets from EHPA, op. cit. note 94.102
  103. Ibid., both references.103
  104. EHPA, “Heat pump sales in Germany – 2015”, 26 January 2016,
  105. Finnish Heat Pump Association, Heat Pump Market in Finland 2016 (Turku, Finland: no date),
  106. Lund and Boyd, op. cit. note 97.106
  107. Ibid.107
  108. Cooper Zhao, China Heat Pump Alliance, personal communication with REN21, 9 December 2016.108
  109. Lund and Boyd, op. cit. note 97.109
  110. Ibid.110
  111. Jun Young Choi, Energy Technology Center, Korea Testing Laboratory, personal communication with REN21, November 2016.111
  112. Ibid.112
  113. EHPA, op. cit. note 94.113
  114. Ibid.114
  115. Midea, “Midea and Clivet complete the share transfer of Clivet S.p.A”, press release (Foshan City, China: 31 October 2016),; United Technologies, “Riello Group joins UTC Climate, Controls & Security”, press release (Montluel, France: 31 May 2016),; Mitsubishi Electric, “Mitsubishi Electric changes name of DeLclima to MELCO Hydronics and IT Cooling”, press release (Tokyo: 22 March 2016), 115
  116. Nibe, “NIBE förvärvar huvudparten av brittiskägda Enertech Group”, press release (Markaryd, Sweden: 28 September 2016),; Nibe, “NIBE-LSB Agreement act clearance from US Federal Trade Commission”, press release (Markaryd, Sweden: 27 June 2016), 116
  117. EHPA, op. cit. note 94.117
  118. Solarpower Europe, Eurobat and EHPA, Solar and Storage (Brussels: April 2016),
  119. EHPA, personal communication with REN21, March 2017.119
  120. Ibid.120
  121. IEA, op. cit. note 95.121
  122. Mihai Vintila, “Romania: Hike in Green House Programme applications”, solarthermalworld, 30 October 2016,; IEA, op. cit. note 95; Frank Stier, “Slovakia: Solar collectors second most favourite choice for green homes”, solarthermalworld, 15 January 2016,
  123. Federal Office for Economic Affairs and Export Control of Germany, Report 2015/2016 (Eschborn, Germany: February 2016),
  124. UK Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, The Renewable Heat Incentive: A Reformed Scheme – Government Response to Consultation (London: December 2016),; UK Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (Ofgem), “Factsheet: Important changes to the Domestic RHI scheme” (London: 2016),
  125. NC Clean Energy Technology Center, Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency,
  126. NREL, “Geothermal Policymakers’ Guidebooks: Current state policies for geothermal heating and cooling”,, viewed 1 March 2017.126
  127. Saqib Rahim, “NYC details how it can move to ‘renewables-based’ grid”, E&E News, 28 September 2016,; NYC Retrofit Accelerator,, viewed 28 January 2017.127
  128. Zhao, op. cit. note 108.128
  129. Ibid.129
  130. NREL, “Electric vehicle grid integration”,, viewed 10 April 2017.130
  131. Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes, German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), Berlin, personal communication with REN21, 1 December 2016.131
  132. European Alternative Fuels Observatory (EAFO), “European Union”,, viewed March 2017; EV-Volumes, “Global Plug-in Sales for 2016”,, viewed 13 March 2017; Inside EVs, “Monthly Plug-In Sales Scorecard”,, viewed February 2016. Figure 52 from EV-Volumes, op. cit. this note.132
  133. EAFO, op. cit. note 132; EV-Volumes, op. cit. note 132; Inside EVs, op. cit. note 132.133
  134. Ibid., all references.134
  135. Ibid., all references.135
  136. Ibid., all references.136
  137. Jose Pontes, “China electric cars = record 43,441 sales in November”, CleanTechnica, updated 22 December 2016,
  138. Sales data for the United States from Inside EVs, op. cit. note 132; David Shepardson and Bernie Woodall, “Electric vehicle sales fall far short of Obama goal”, Reuters, 20 January 2016,
  139. Inside EVs, op. cit. note 132.139
  140. Fred Lambert, “Norway keeps electric vehicle tax exemption until 2020, positions itself to stay EV leader”, Electrek, 9 November 2016,; David Jolly, “Norway is a model for encouraging electric car sales”, New York Times, 16 October 2015,; Chris Nelder, “EVs charge ahead with new technologies and business models”, Rocky Mountain Institute, 21 June 2016,
  141. EAFO, “Europe”,, viewed 17 March 2017141
  142. EAFO, “Netherlands”,, viewed 13 March 2017; EV-Volumes, “Europe Plug-in Sales for 2016”,, viewed 13 March 2017.142
  143. EAFO website,, viewed 6 January 2017; EV Sales, “China buses overview (through 2010 to 2015)”, 18 September 2016,
  144. IEA, Global EV Outlook 2015 (Paris: 2015), p. 1,
  145. Living Lab Smart Charging, “The Dutch revolution in smart charging of electric vehicles”, press release (Arnhem, The Netherlands: 17 October 2016),; Living Lab Smart Charging, “FAQ”,, viewed 22 March 2017; Living Lab Smart Charging, “325 Gemeenten helpen Living Lab Smart Charging”,, viewed 22 March 2017.145
  146. Camille von Kaenel, “How car charging is going the way of Airbnb”, E&E News, 2 August 2016,; Ariel Wittenberg, “Fast-charge plugs do not fit all electric cars”, Scientific American, 1 August 2016,
  147. Wittenberg, op. cit. note 146.147
  148. Jonathan Coopersmith, “What fax machines can teach us about electric cars”, Texas A&M University, 7 March 2017,
  149. Heather Allen, Partnership on Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport (SLoCaT), personal communication with REN21, 5 December 2016.149
  150. Union of the Electric Industry (Eurelectric), Smart Charging: Steering the Charge, Driving the Change (Brussels: March 2015),
  151. Ibid.151
  152. EV Sales, “World top 20 December 2016 (updated)”, 31 January 2017,
  153. Ibid.153
  154. Ibid.; Nissan News, “Renault-Nissan Alliance hits milestone of 350,000 electric vehicles sold, maintains position as global EV leader”, 13 September 2016,
  155. EV Sales, op. cit. note 152.155
  156. Volkswagen AG, “Shaping the Future of the Volkswagen Group: Initiatives Strategy 2025” (Wolfsburg, Germany: 1 June 2016),
  157. “Volkswagen CEO: Building our own battery factory makes sense”, Fortune, 21 November 2016,
  158. “Daimler to invest 10 billion euros in electric vehicles – paper”, Reuters, 25 November 2016,; Elisabeth Behrmann, "Mercedes hastens electric-car shift as combustion era fades", Bloomberg, 29 March 2017,
  159. Tesla Inc., “About Tesla”,, viewed 8 March 2017; Wikipedia, “BYD Auto”,, viewed 8 March 2017.159
  160. Apple has spent more on research and development for vehicles and related services in recent years than it did on the Apple Watch, iPad and iPhone combined, according to Morgan Stanley, cited in Chris Nelder, “EVs charge ahead with new technologies and business models”, RMI, 21 June 2016,
  161. “95% of China’s electric vehicle startups face wipeout”, Bloomberg, 29 August 2017,; figure of 200 also from Doug Young, “New energy: inferior cars, corruption plague China EV sector”, Young’s China Business Blog, 19 July 2016,
  162. “Nissan Leaf with 300 km range on sale by 2017”, Electric Vehicle News, 7 May 2014,; “Chevrolet Bolt electric range could be able to go over 300 km per charge”, News18, 21 October 2015,
  163. Alex Davies, “We drive the $30K Chevy Bolt, GM’s Tesla-walloping electric car”, Wired, 13 September 2016,
  164. “Mercedes-Benz EQ SUV will go on sale by 2020”, Economic Times, 1 November 2016,; Green Car Congress, “Volkswagen investing €3.5B in German plants for e-mobility and digitalization; MEB production, pilot plant for batteries and modules”, 18 November 2016,
  165. Fred Lambert, “5 major automakers join forces to deploy 400 ultra-fast (350 kW) charging stations for electric vehicles in Europe”, Electrek, 29 November 2016,; Jolly, op. cit. note 140; Peter Campbell, “Electric car rivals plan €1bn ultrafast charging network”, Financial Times, 29 November 2016,
  166. Jay Cole, “GM: Chevrolet Bolt arrives in 2016, $145/kWh cell cost, Volt margin improves $3,500”, Inside-EVs, 2016,, viewed 6 January 2017.166
  167. Wittenberg, op. cit. note 146; Fred Lambert, “BMW and Nissan partner to build 174 more DC fast-charging stations for their electric vehicles”, Electrek, 24 January 2017,
  168. See, for example, Camille von Kaenel, “Kan. regulators slam the brakes on charging stations”, E&E News, 19 September 2016, Also see von Kaenel, op. cit. note 146.168
  169. “The electric car places heavy demands on its batteries”, All About Batteries,, viewed 14 March 2017.169
  170. Ibid.; Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance and BNEF, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2016 (Frankfurt: 2016), pp. 38, 39,; John Voelcker, “Electric-car battery costs: Tesla $190 per kwh for pack, GM $145 for cells”, Green Car Reports, 28 April 2016,
  171. Christopher Arcus, “Battery lifetime: how long can electric vehicle batteries last?” CleanTechnica, 31 May 2016,
  172. Öko Institute, “Electric buses take new forms”, Öko News, 7 July 2016,
  173. Allen, op. cit. note 149.173
  174. Ibid.174
  175. Steve Mollman, “Santiago’s subway system will soon be powered most by solar and wind energy”, Quartz, 24 May 2016,
  176. FeiFei Shen, “Hanergy unveils solar-powered cars to expand use of technology”, Renewable Energy World, 7 July 2016,; “China plans for solar-powered cars”, E&E News, 6 July 2016,
  177. “Uganda launches Africa’s first solar-powered bus”, ESI Africa, 4 August 2016,; “Solar jeepneys will soon ply the streets”, Tempo, 6 July 2016,; Mushfique Wadud, “Cheap solar ambulances to speed into service in rural Bangladesh”, Reuters, 14 February 2017,
  178. Stanley Carvalho, “Solar plane circles globe in first for clean energy”, Reuters, 27 July 2016,
  179. Clean Energy Ministerial, op. cit. note 3. 179
  180. See, for example, California Air Resources Board, op. cit. note 3.180
  181. ZEV Alliance, “International alliance aims for all new cars to be zero-emission by 2050”, press release (Paris: 3 December 2015), The International ZEV Alliance includes Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom in Europe; California, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island and Vermont in the United States; and Québec in Canada.181
  182. Green Deal, “C-198 Electric Transport Green Deal 2016-2020”,, viewed 13 January 2017; Peter Vermeij and Baerte de Brey, “Urban Future in the Netherlands. Ready to Cooperate, Charge & Go”, presentation at World Mobility Summit 2016, Germany, 2016,
  183. Ånund Killingtveit, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, personal communication with REN21, March 2017.183
  184. Katy Barnato, “This country has hit a major milestone for electric cars – here’s how”, CNBC, 24 May 2016,
  185. Element Energy, Pathways to High Penetration of Electric Vehicles (Cambridge, UK: 17 December 2013), p. iv,
  186. “India not doing enough to capture energy storage opportunity”, op. cit. note 87; Huma Siddiqui, “E-vehicles, solar power plants on mind, India looks to source lithium from Latin America”, Financial Express, 28 February 2017, Also see Government of India, Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises, “Fame India Scheme”, press release (Delhi: 23 November), 186
  187. Li Fusheng, “Road map outlined for new energy industry”, China Daily, 31 October 2016,
  188. “China’s coal capital is spending millions to go green”, Bloomberg, 16 October 2016,
  189. Governor’s Interagency Working Group on Zero-Emission Vehicles, 2016 ZEV Action Plan: An Updated Roadmap Toward 1.5 Million Zero-emission Vehicles on California Roadways by 2025 (Sacramento, CA: Office of Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr., October 2016), p. 4,; Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, ZEV Facts, “ZEV state”,, 2016, viewed 13 January 2017.189
  190. California Environment Protection Agency, 2016 Annual Evaluation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development (Sacramento, CA: July 2016), p. 63,
  191. German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), “Minister Gabriel: The purchase grant gives a key boost to electric mobility”, press release (Berlin: 27 April 2016),; Österreichischer Automobil-, Motorrad- und Touringclub (ÖAMTC), “E-Autos werden mit 4.000 Euro pro Pkw gefördert”,, viewed 27 April 2017.191
  192. “Japan now has more EV charging stations than gas stations”, E&E News, 11 May 2016,
  193. Michael Martina and Jake Spring, “China hits two more vehicle makers for green subsidy breaches”, Reuters, 10 October 2016,
  194. See, for example, Ibid.; Doug Young, “New energy: inferior cars, corruption plague China EV sector”, Young’s China Business Blog, 19 July 2016,; Jane Cai, “Is China’s electric car dream turning into a zombie nightmare?” South China Morning Post, 2 January 2017,
  195. “India not doing enough to capture energy storage opportunity”, op. cit. note 87; Cai, op. cit. note 194.195
  196. Art van der Giessen and Carla van der Linden, “Electric mobility Is Here” (Amsterdam: March 2016),
  197. “China’s coal capital is spending millions to go green”, op. cit. note 188.197
  198. Ibid.198
  199. Zhang Chun, “Beijing limits on car registration boost electric vehicles”, Climate Change News, 28 November 2016,