Table R1 from the following sources: Bio-power based on 2015 forecast data in International Energy Agency (IEA), Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2015 (Paris: 2015), https://www.iea.org/bookshop/708-Medium-Term_Renewable_Energy_Market_Report_2015, except for the following: US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, “Office of Energy Projects Energy Infrastructure Update for December 2015,” http://www.ferc.gov/legal/staff-reports/2015/dec-infrastructure.pdf; Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL), “Banco de informacoes de geração,” http://www.aneel.gov.br/aplicacoes/capacidadebrasil/Combustivel.cfm, viewed 9 May 2016; China National Renewable Energy Centre, provided by Amanda Zhang, Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association, personal communication with REN21, 26 April 2016; Germany preliminary statistics from Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi), Erneuerbare Energien in Deutschland, Daten zur Entwicklung im Jahr 2015 (Berlin: February 2016), http://www.erneuerbare-energien.de/EE/Redaktion/DE/Downloads/erneuerbare-energien-in-zahlen-2015.pdf; UK Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC), “Energy Trends Section 6 – Renewables” (London: March 2016), Table 6.1, https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/energy-trends-section-6-renewables, viewed 22 April 2016; Government of India, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), “Physical progress (achievements) – up to the month of December 2015,” http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/; MNRE, “Physical progress (achievements) – up to the month of December 2014,” http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/; Japan from Hironao Matsubara, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies, Japan, personal communication with REN21, 10 April 2016. Geothermal power from Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), supplied by Benjamin Matek, GEA, personal communication with REN21, March–May 2016. Hydropower from sources in endnote 5 of this section. Ocean power from Ocean Energy Systems (OES), Annual Report 2015 (Lisbon: April 2016), http://www.ocean-energy-systems.org; see Ocean Energy section and related endnotes for more information. Solar PV from sources in endnote 6 of this section. CSP from CSP Today, “Projects tracker,” http://social.csptoday.com/tracker/projects, viewed on numerous dates leading up to 23 March 2015; US National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “Concentrating solar power projects by project name,” http://www.nrel.gov/csp/solarpaces/by_project.cfm, viewed on numerous dates leading up to 23 March 2015; Luis Crespo, European Solar Thermal Electricity Association (ESTELA), Brussels, CSP technology questionnaire provided to REN21, 21 February 2016; REN21, Renewables 2015 Global Status Report (Paris: 2015), pp. 64–65, http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/REN12-GSR2015_Onlinebook_low1.pdf. Wind power from sources in endnote 9 of this section. Modern bio-heat based on the following: 297 GWth of bioenergy heat plant capacity installed as of 2008, from Helena Chum et al., “Bioenergy,” in Ottmar Edenhofer et al., eds., IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (Cambridge, UK and New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2011), http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srren/Chapter%202%20Bioenergy.pdf. Projections based on this number have been made for past GSRs. The combination of the Chum et al. data, plus past GSR projections, was used to estimate 2014 values of 305 GWth using a linear regression. The 2015 value presented here assumes a 3.5% growth rate from that 305 GWth value, based on the same percent increase for modern heat generation as presented in IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2015, op. cit. this note, p. 242. Note that accurate heat data, including from bioenergy, are very difficult to obtain as most capacity installations and output are not metered. Even if plant capacities are known, there is often no knowledge of whether a 1 MWth plant, for example, is used for 80 hours or 8,000 hours per year. Geothermal heating capacity derived from John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd, “Direct utilization of geothermal energy: 2015 worldwide review,” in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2015 (Melbourne, Australia: 19–25 April 2015), and from Luis C.A. Gutiérrez-Negrín, International Geothermal Association and Mexican Geothermal Association, personal communication with REN21, March 2015. Capacity figure for 2015 is extrapolated from 2014 values (from sources) by weighted-average growth rate across eight categories of geothermal direct use: space heating, bathing and swimming, greenhouse heating, aquaculture, industrial use, snow melting and cooling, agricultural drying and other. The weighted-average five-year annual growth rate for capacity is 6.0% compared to 5.9% simple growth rate for the same period. The weighted-average five-year annual growth rate for utilisation is 3.5% compared to 3.3% simple growth rate for the same period. Solar collectors for water heating estimates based on Franz Mauthner, AEE – Institute for Sustainable Technologies (AEE INTEC), personal communication with REN21, April 2016, and on Franz Mauthner, Werner Weiss, and Monika Spörk-Dür, Solar Heat Worldwide: Markets and Contribution to the Energy Supply 2014 (Gleisdorf, Austria: IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme, May 2016). See Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling section and related endnotes for more details. Ethanol, biodiesel and HVO production data from sources in endnote 3 of this section.
Table R3 from the following sources: ethanol data from F.O. Licht, “Fuel Ethanol: World Production by Country,” 2016, and biodiesel data for Argentina, China, Germany, France, Indonesia, Malaysia, Spain and Thailand from F.O. Licht, “Biodiesel: World Production, by Country,” 2016, both with permission from F.O. Licht / Licht Interactive Data; biodiesel data for Belgium, Canada, Colombia, India, Netherlands and Singapore from IEA, op. cit. note 1, p. 261; biodiesel data for United States from US EIA, Monthly Energy Review, April 2016, Table 10.4, p. 156, http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/archive/00351604.pdf; biodiesel data for Brazil from Brazil Ministry of Mines and Energy, based on Ministry of Agriculture statistics, “Produção nacional de biodiesel puro - B100 (metros cúbicos),” http://www.anp.gov.br/?dw=8740. Preliminary 2014 data that appeared in GSR 2015 have been updated where possible. Netherlands HVO production assumes that the Neste Oil facility in Rotterdam produced the same amount of HVO as in prior years, with data from F.O. Licht, 2015.
Table R4 from the following sources: Inventory of existing capacity and installed capacity in 2015 from GEA, from Benjamin Matek, GEA, personal communication with REN21, March–May 2016; additional information on Japan from Toshihiro Uchida, Geological Survey of Japan (AIST), via Marietta Sander, International Geothermal Association, personal communication with REN21, April 2016.
Table R5 from the following sources: Global capacity estimate based on IHA, 2016 Hydropower Status Report (London: May 2016), http://www.hydropower.org/2016-hydropower-status-report, and on IHA, personal communication with REN21, February–April 2016. Total installed capacity of 1,212 GW (33.7 GW added), less 145 GW of pumped storage (2.5 GW added), yields 1,067 GW (31.2 GW added). The difference of 3 GW relative to the values reported here pertains to data for China. Due to uncertainty about full station commissioning dates falling between 2014 and 2015, IHA’s Hydropower Status Report is reporting 19 GW added in 2015, and REN21’s Global Status Report is reporting 16 GW. Country data from the following sources: China: China National Energy Agency, summary of national electric industry statistics for 2015, http://www.nea.gov.cn/2016-01/15/c_135013789.htm. Brazil: 2,506 MW (2,299 MW large hydro, 117 MW small hydro and around 90 MW very small hydro) added in 2015, per ANEEL, op. cit. note 2; “Resumo Geral dos Novos Empreendimentos de Geração,” March 2016, http://www.aneel.gov.br/arquivos/zip/Resumo_Geral_das_Usinas_março_2015.zip; cumulative large hydro capacity is listed as 86,366 MW at end-2015, small hydro (1–30 MW) at 4,886 MW and very small hydro (<1 MW) at 398 MW (compared to 308 MW in the previous year), for a total of 91,650 MW. United States: US EIA, Electric Power Monthly, March 2016, Table 6.2.B, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly. Canada: IHA, op. cit. this note; Statistics Canada, “Table 127-0009 Installed Generating Capacity, by Class of Electricity Producer,” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim, viewed March 2016. Russian Federation: System Operator of the Unified Energy System of Russia, op. cit. note 2. India: installed capacity in 2015 (units larger than 25 MW) of 42,623.42 MW from Government of India, Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority, “All India Installed Capacity (in MW) of Power Stations,” 13 December 2015, http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/installedcapacity/2015/installed_capacity-12.pdf; capacity additions in 2015 (>25 MW) of 1,606 MW from Government of India, Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority, “Executive Summary of the Power Sector (monthly),” http://www.cea.nic.in/monthlyarchive.html, viewed January–December 2015; installed capacity in 2015 (<25 MW) of 4,176.9 MW from MNRE, op. cit. note 1, viewed 1 February 2016; capacity additions in 2015 (<25 MW) of 186 MW based on difference of year-end 2015 figure (above) and year-end 2014 figure (3,990.83 MW), from idem; an additional 150 MW completed in 2015 but not counted in official capacity total until January 2016, from Government of India, Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority, “Executive Summary of the Power Sector (monthly),” January 2016, http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/executivesummary/2016/exe_summary-01.pdf. Turkey: capacity at end-2015 of 25,867.8 MW from Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEİAŞ), “Türkiye elektrik enerjisi kuruluş ve yakit cinslerine göre kurulu güç,” http://www.teias.gov.tr/yukdagitim/kuruluguc.xls, viewed 28 March 2016; capacity at end-2014 of 23,643 MW from TEİAŞ, Stratejik Plan 2015–2019 (Ankara: 2015), http://www.teias.gov.tr/dosyalar/stratejik_plan2015_2019.pdf. Vietnam: IHA, op. cit. this note. Malaysia: IHA, op. cit. this note.
Table R6 from the following sources: Unless noted otherwise, data for 2014 from IEA PVS, Trends 2015 in Photovoltaic Applications: Survey Report of Selected IEA Countries Between 1992 and 2014 (Paris: 2015), http://www.iea-pvps.org/fileadmin/dam/public/report/national/IEA-PVPS_-_Trends_2015_-_MedRes.pdf, and from SolarPower Europe, Global Market Outlook for Solar Power 2015–2019 (Brussels: 2015); data for 2015 from IEA PVPS, Snapshot of Global Photovoltaic Markets 2015 (Paris: April 2016), http://www.iea-pvps.org/fileadmin/dam/public/report/statistics/IEA-PVPS_-__A_Snapshot_of_Global_PV_-_1992-2015_-_Final.pdf, from Gaëtan Masson, Becquerel Institute and IEA PVPS, personal communications with REN21, March–May 2016, and from SolarPower Europe, Solar Market Report & Membership Directory 2016 Edition (Brussels: April 2016), as well as from sources provided below. Note that some countries (e.g., Canada, Japan, Spain) report data officially in alternating current (AC); these data were converted to direct current (DC) for consistency across countries. This report attempts to report all solar PV data in DC units. Additional country sources include: China: China National Energy Board, cited in China Electricity Council, “2015 PV-related statistics,” 6 February 2016, http://www.cec.org.cn/yaowenkuaidi/2016-02-05/148942.html (using Google Translate). United States: GTM Research and SEIA, US Solar Market Insight Report: 2014 Year in Review, Executive Summary (Washington, DC: 2015), pp. 4–5, https://www.greentechmedia.com/research/ussmi; GTM Research and SEIA, US Solar Market Insight: 2015 Year-in-Review, Executive Summary (Washington, DC: March 2016), p. 4. United Kingdom: UK DECC, “Energy Trends: Section 6 – Renewables” (London: March 2016), https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/511939/Renewables.pdf. India: 2014 from Bridge to India, May 2015, provided by Sinead Orlandi, Becquerel Institute, personal communication with REN21, 11 May 2015; 2015 from MNRE, “Physical progress (achievements),” multiple issues, http://mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/, and from Bridge to India, all provided by Shaurya Bajaj, Bridge to India, personal communication with REN21, 13 April 2016. Germany: BMWI, op. cit. note 1, p. 4. See Solar PV section in the Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes for additional statistics and details.
Table R8 from the following sources: Cumulative solar thermal capacity in operation nationally and globally at end-2014 from Franz Mauthner, AEE INTEC, Gleisdorf, Austria, personal communications with REN21, April 2016, and from Mauthner, Weiss, and Spörk-Dür, op. cit. note 1; worldwide gross additions for 2015 estimated by Mauthner, op. cit. this note; preview for world 2015 data based on the latest market data from Australia, Austria, Brazil, China, Germany, Israel, Mexico, Turkey and the United States, which represented 87% of cumulated installed capacity in operation in 2014, and other countries were projected accordingly. Gross additions on a national level from the following associations and experts: David Ferrari, School of Engineering at RMIT University, former Sustainability Victoria, Australia; Klaus Mischensky, Austria Solar, Austria; Marcelo Mesquita, the Solar Heating Department of the Brazilian Association of Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Heating (DASOL ABRAVA), Brazil; Hongzhi Cheng, Shandong SunVision Management Consulting, China; Denmark from Jan Erik Nielsen, PlanEnergi, Denmark, and Jan-Olof Dalenbäck, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Richard Loyen, Enerplan, France; Marco Tepper, BSW Solar, Germany; Costas Travasaros, Greek Solar Industry Association (EBHE), Greece; Jaideep Malaviya, Solar Thermal Federation of India (STFI), India; Eli Shilton, Elsol, Israel; Kumiko Saito, Solar System Development Association (SSDA), Japan; Daniel Garcia, Solar Thermal Manufacturers Organisation (FAMERAC), Mexico; Janusz Staroscik, Association of Manufacturers and Importers of Heating Appliances (SPIUG), Poland; Pascual Polo, Spanish Solar Thermal Association (ASIT), Spain; David Stickelberger, Swissolar, Switzerland; Kutay Ülke, Ezinç Metal, Turkey; Les Nelson, Solar Heating & Cooling Programs, International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO), United States.
Table R16 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EUROSTAT, op. cit. note 15. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.
Table R17 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EUROSTAT, op. cit. note 15. Targets for the EU-28 were set in each country's National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP), available at http://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/renewable-energy/national-action-plans; certain NREAP targets have been revised subsequently. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.
Table R19 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.
Table R20 from the following sources: All available policy references, including the IEA/IRENA online Global Renewable Energy Policies and Measures database, published sources as given in the endnotes for the Policy Landscape chapter of this report, and submissions from report contributors.
Table R21 from Ibid.
Table R22 from Ibid.
Table R23 from the following sources: REN21 database, compiled from all available policy references plus submissions from report contributors; EU targets and shares from EUROSTAT, op. cit. note 15. Targets for the EU-28 and Energy Community countries were set in each country’s NREAP. Certain NREAP targets have been revised subsequently. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.
Table R24 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EUROSTAT, op. cit. note 15. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.