Reference Tables

Index

Reference_Tables

Table R1. Global Renewable Energy Capacity and Biofuel Production, 2016

Added During 2016

Existing at End-2016

POWER GENERATION (GW)

Bio-power

5.9

112

Geothermal power

0.4

13.5

Hydropower

25

1,096

Ocean power

~0

0.5

Solar PV

75

303

Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP)

0.1

4.8

Wind power

55

487

HEATING/HOT WATER (GWth)

Modern bio-heat

5

311

Geothermal direct use

1.3

23

Solar collectors for water heating1

37

456

TRANSPORT FUELS (billion litres per year)

Ethanol production

0.04

98.6

Biodiesel production

2.17

30.8

Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)

0.9

4.9

1 Additions are net and do not include air collectors.

Note: Numbers are rounded to nearest GW/GWth/billion litres, with the exceptions of numbers <15, which are rounded to first decimal point, and transport fuels; where totals do not add up, the difference is due to rounding. Rounding is to account for uncertainties and inconsistencies in available data. Data reflect adjustments to year-end 2015 capacity data (particularly for bio-power and hydropower). For more precise data, see Reference Tables R2-R9, Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes.

Source: See endnote 1 for this section.

Table R2. Renewable Electric Power Global Capacity, Top Regions/Countries1, 2016

Global

BRICS2

EU-28

China

United States

Germany

Japan

India

Italy

Technology

GW

GW

Bio-power

112

35

37

12

16.8

7.6

4.1

8.3

4.1

Geothermal power

13.5

0.1

0.9

~0

3.6

~0

0.5

0

0.8

Hydropower

1,096

499

127

305

80

5.6

23

47

18.5

Ocean power

0.5

~0

0.3

~0

~0

0

0

0

~0

Solar PV

303

88

106

77

41

41

43

9.1

19.3

Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP)

4.8

0.4

2.3

~0

1.7

~0

0

0.2

~0

Wind power

487

210

154

169

82

50

3.2

29

9.3

Total renewable power capacity(including hydropower)

2,017

832

428

564

225

104

73

94

52

Total renewable power capacity (not including hydropower)

921

333

300

258

145

98

51

46

33

Per capita capacity(kilowatts per inhabitant, not including hydropower)

0.1

0.1

0.6

0.2

0.5

1.2

0.4

0.04

0.6

1 Table shows the top six countries by total renewable power capacity, not including hydropower; if hydropower were included, countries and rankings would differ somewhat (the top six would be China, United States, Brazil, Germany, Canada and India).

2 The five BRICS countries are Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa.

Note: Global total reflects additional countries not shown. Numbers are based on best data available at time of production. To account for uncertainties and inconsistencies in available data, numbers are rounded to the nearest 1 GW, with the exception of the following: capacity totals below 20 GW and per capita totals are rounded to the nearest decimal point (except for India, which is rounded to the nearest 0.01 kW). Where totals do not add up, the difference is due to rounding. Capacity amounts of <50 MW (including pilot projects) are designated by “~0.” For more precise capacity data, see Global Overview chapter and Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes. Numbers should not be compared with prior versions of this table to obtain year-by-year increases, as some adjustments are due to improved or adjusted data rather than to actual capacity changes. Hydropower totals, and therefore the total world renewable capacity (and totals for some countries), reflect an effort to omit pure pumped storage capacity. For more information on hydropower and pumped storage, see Methodological Notes on page 213.

Source: See endnote 2 for this section.

Table R3. Biofuels Global Production, Top 16 Countries and EU-28, 2016

Country

Ethanol

Biodiesel (FAME)

HVO1

Total

Change Relative to 2015

Billion litres

United States

58.0

5.5

1.6

65.1

2.6

Brazil

27.0

3.8

30.8

-1.4

Germany

0.9

3.0

3.9

-0.3

Argentina

0.9

3.0

3.9

1.0

China

3.2

0.3

3.5

no change

Indonesia

0.1

3.0

3.1

1.3

Thailand

1.2

1.4

0

2.6

0.2

France

0.8

1.5

2.3

-0.2

United Kingdom

0.5

0.2

1.6

2.3

0.1

Canada

1.7

0.4

2.1

0.1

Spain

0.3

1.1

1.4

-0.2

Singapore

0

1.2

1.2

no change

Poland

0.2

0.9

1.1

no change

Belgium

0.6

0.5

1.1

-0.1

Colombia

0.4

0.5

0.9

-0.1

India

0.9

0

0.9

0.2

EU-28

3.4

8.0

1.6

13.0

0.2

1Hydrotreated vegetable oil

Note: All figures are rounded to the nearest 0.1 billion litres; comparison column notes “no change” if difference is less than 0.05 billion litres; blank cells indicate that no data are available. Ethanol numbers are for fuel ethanol only. Table ranking is by total volumes of biofuel produced in 2016, and not by energy content. Where numbers do not add up, it is due to rounding. Ethanol data were converted from cubic metres to litres using 1,000 litres/cubic metre; biodiesel data were converted from units of 1,000 tonnes using a density value for biodiesel to give 1,136 litres per tonne based on US National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide, Fourth Edition (Golden, CO: 2009), http://www.biodiesel.org/docs/using-hotline/nrel-handling-and-use.pdf?sfvrsn=4. HVO data were converted from tonnes to litres using a conversion factor of 780 kg/m3, from Neste Oil, Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) – Premium Renewable Biofuel for Diesel Engines (Espoo, Finland: February 2015), https://www.neste.com/sites/default/files/image_gallery/renewable_products/neste_renewable_diesel_handbook_german.pdf. Data can vary considerably across sources. For further details, see Biomass Energy section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes.

Source: See endnote 3 for this section.

Table R4. Geothermal Power Global Capacity and Additions, Top 6 Countries, 2016

Added 2016

Total End-2016

MW

GW

Top Countries by Additions

Indonesia

205

1.6

Turkey

197

0.8

Kenya

29

0.6

Mexico

15

0.9

Japan

1

0.5

Italy

0.9

Top Countries by Total Capacity

United States

3.6

Philippines

1.9

Indonesia

205

1.6

New Zealand

1.0

Mexico

15

0.9

Italy

0.8

Note: Capacity additions are rounded to the nearest 1 MW, and totals are rounded to the nearest 0.1 GW. Rounding is to account for uncertainties and inconsistencies in available data. For more information and statistics, see Geothermal Power and Heat section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes.

Source: See endnote 4 for this section.

Table R5. Hydropower Global Capacity and Additions, Top 6 Countries, 2016

Added 2016

Total End-2016

GW

Top Countries by Additions

China

8.9

305

Brazil

5.3

97

Ecuador

2.0

4

Ethiopia

1.5

4

Vietnam

1.1

16

Peru

1.0

5

Top Countries by Total Capacity

China

8.9

305

Brazil

5.3

97

United States

0.4

80

Canada

79

Russian Federation

0.2

48

India

0.6

47

Note: Capacity additions are rounded to the nearest 0.1 GW, and totals are rounded to the nearest 1 GW. Rounding is to account for uncertainties and inconsistencies in available data. For more information and statistics, see Hydropower section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes.

Source: See endnote 5 for this section.

Table R6. Solar PV Global Capacity and Additions, Top 10 Countries, 2016

Total End-2015

Added 2016

Total End-2016

GW

Top Countries by Additions

China

43.5

34.5

77.4

United States

26.2

14.8

40.9

Japan

34.2

8.6

42.8

India

5.1

4.1

9.1

United Kingdom

9.7

2

11.7

Germany

39.8

1.5

41.3

Republic of Korea

3.5

0.9

4.4

Australia

4.9

0.9

5.8

Philippines

0.1

0.8

0.9

Chile

0.9

0.7

1.6

Top Countries by total capacity

China

43.5

34.5

77.4

Japan

34.2

8.6

42.8

Germany

39.8

1.5

41.3

United States

26.2

14.8

40.9

Italy

18.9

0.4

19.3

United Kingdom

9.7

2

11.7

India

5.1

4.1

9.1

France

6.6

0.6

7.1

Australia

4.9

0.9

5.8

Spain

5.4

0.1

5.5

Note: Country data are rounded to the nearest 0.1 GW; world totals are rounded to the nearest 1 GW. Rounding is to account for uncertainties and inconsistencies in available data; where totals do not add up, the difference is due to rounding. Data are provided in direct current (DC); data for Canada, Chile, Japan and Spain were converted from official data reported in alternating current (AC) into DC by the sources listed for this table. Data reflect a variety of sources, some of which differ significantly, reflecting variations in accounting or methodology. For more information, see Solar PV section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes.

Source: See endnote 6 for this section.

Table R7. Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) Global Capacity and Additions, 2016

Country

Total End-2015

Added 2016

Total End-2016

MW

Spain

2,300

0

2,300

United States

1,738

0

1,738

India

225

0

225

South Africa

100

100

200

Morocco

180

0

180

United Arab Emirates

100

0

100

Algeria

25

0

25

Egypt

20

0

20

Australia

12

0

12

China

0

10

10

Thailand

5

0

5

Note: Table includes all countries with operating commercial CSP capacity at end-2016. Several countries with commercial capacity also have pilot or demonstration facilities that are not included in the table. Additional countries that had small pilot or demonstration plants in operation by year’s end include Canada (1.1 MW), France (1.6 MW), Germany (1.5 MW), Israel (6 MW), Italy (7 MW), Oman (7 MW) and Turkey (5 MW). National data are rounded to the nearest MW, and world totals are rounded to the nearest 5 MW. Rounding is to account for uncertainties and inconsistencies in available data; where totals do not add up, the difference is due to rounding. For more information, see CSP section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes.

Source: See endnote 7 for this section.

Table R8. Solar Water Heating Collectors and Total Capacity End-2015 and Newly Installed Capacity 2016, Top 20 Countries

Total End-2015

Gross Additions 2016

GWth

MWth

Country

Glazed

Unglazed

Total

Glazed

Unglazed

Total

China1

309.5

0

309.5

27,664

0

27,664

Turkey

13.6

0

13.6

1,467

0

1,467

Brazil

5.7

3.0

8.7

530

384

913

India2

6.3

0

6.3

894

0

894

United States

2.0

15.3

17.3

121

562

682

Germany

12.8

0.4

13.2

521

0

521

Australia

2.4

3.6

6.0

115

266

381

Denmark

0.8

0

0.8

335

0

335

Mexico

1.3

0.7

2.0

180

76

256

Israel

3.2

0

3.2

252

1

253

Greece

3.1

0

3.1

190

0

190

Spain

2.5

0.1

2.6

146

2

149

Italy

3.0

0

3.0

142

0

142

South Africa3

0.5

0.7

1.2

37

55

92

Poland

1.4

0

1.4

81

0

81

Austria

3.4

0.3

3.7

78

1

78

Taipei, China

1.2

0

1.2

70

0

70

Switzerland

1.0

0.1

1.1

55

5

59

Japan

2.4

0

2.4

50

0

50

France

1.5

0.1

1.6

46

0

46

Total 20 Top Countries

376.7

24.2

400.9

32,974

1,351

34,324

1In 2014, China settled on a new methodology for calculating cumulative capacity, which assumes a 10-year lifetime for Chinese-made systems. China and world data reflect this change.

2For India, end-of-year capacity data are by fiscal year; new additions in 2016 are by calendar year.

3For South Africa, additions in 2016 are assumed to be equivalent to additions in 2015, due to a lack of available data.

Note: Countries are ordered according to newly installed glazed collector capacity in 2016. Data are for glazed and unglazed water collectors excluding air collectors, which added 1,641,518 m2 to the year-end world total for 2015, and excluding concentrating collectors with 64,596 m2 additional aperture area. Data are rounded: end-2015 data for individual countries, Total 20 Top Countries and World Total are rounded to nearest 0.1 GWth; additions for individual countries, Total 20 Top Countries and World Total are rounded to nearest 1 MWth. Where totals do not add up, the difference is due to rounding. By accepted convention, 1 million square metres = 0.7 GWth. The year 2015 is the most recent one for which firm global data on total capacity in operation are available. It is estimated, however, that 456 GWth of solar thermal capacity (water collectors only) was in operation worldwide by end-2016. For more information, see Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes.

Source: See endnote 8 for this section.

Table R9. Wind Power Global Capacity and Additions, Top 10 Countries, 2016

Total End-2015

Added 2016

Total End-2016

GW

Top Countries by Additions

China1

129/145.4

19.3/23.4

149/168.7

United States

74

8.2

82.1

Germany2

44.5

5

49.5

India

25.1

3.6

28.7

Brazil3

8.7

2

10.7

France

10.5

1.6

12.1

Turkey

4.7

1.4

6.1

Netherlands

3.4

0.9

4.3

United Kingdom

13.8

0.7

14.5

Canada

11.2

0.7

11.9

Top Countries by Total Capacity

China1

129/145.4

19.3/23.4

149/168.7

United States

74

8.2

82.1

Germany2

44.5

5

49.5

India

25.1

3.6

28.7

Spain

23

~0

23.1

United Kingdom

13.8

0.7

14.5

France

10.5

1.6

12.1

Canada

11.2

0.7

11.9

Brazil3

8.7

2

10.7

Italy

9

0.3

9.3

1For China, data to the left of the “/” are the amounts officially classified as connected to the grid and operational (receiving FIT premium) by year’s end; data to the right are total installed capacity, most, if not all, of which was connected to substations by year’s end. The world totals include the higher figures for China. (See Wind Power text and related endnotes for more details.)

2For Germany, some onshore capacity was decommissioned/repowered in 2016; number in table is net additions. (See Wind Power text and related endnotes for more details.)

3For Brazil, all capacity was commissioned by year’s end, but not all was grid-connected.

Note: Country data are rounded to nearest 0.1 GW; world data are rounded to nearest 1 GW. Rounding is to account for uncertainties and inconsistencies in available data; where totals do not add up, the difference is due to rounding or repowering/removal of existing projects. “~0” denotes capacity additions of less than 50 MW. Data reflect a variety of sources, some of which differ quite significantly, reflecting variations in accounting or methodology. For more information, see Wind Power section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes.

Source: See endnote 9 for this section.

Table R10. Electricity Access by Region and Country, 2014 and Targets

World/Region/Country

Electrification Rate in 2014

People Without Access to Electricity in 2014

Targets

Share of population with access

Millions

Share of population with access

Africa

45%

634

Northern Africa

99%

1.3

Sub-Saharan Africa

35%

632

Developing Asia

86%

512

Latin America

95%

22

Middle East

92%

18

Africa

Algeria

100%

0

Angola

33%

16

100% by 2030

Benin

29%

7

95% by 2025 (urban)65% by 2025 (rural)

Botswana1

53%

1

100% by 2030

Burkina Faso

18%

14

95% by 2030

Burundi

5%

10

Cabo Verde

96%

0.2

100% by 2020

Cameroon

62%

9

Central African Republic

3%

5

50% by 2030

Chad

4%

13

Comoros

69%

0.2

Congo

42%

3

Côte d'Ivoire

62%

8

100% by 2020

Democratic Republic of the Congo

18%

62

60% by 2025

Djibouti

42%

0.5

Egypt

99%

1

Equatorial Guinea

66%

0.3

Eritrea

32%

3

Ethiopia

25%

73

100% by 2030

Gabon

89%

0.2

Gambia

45%

1

100% by 2030

Ghana

76%

8

100% by 2030

Guinea

26%

9

50% by 2020

Guinea-Bissau

21%

1

80% by 2030

Kenya

20%

36

100% by 2022

Lesotho

17%

2

40% by 2020

Liberia

10%

4

100% by 2030

Libya

99.8%

0

Madagascar

13%

21

Malawi

12%

15

Mali

26%

13

87% by 203061% by 2033 (rural)

Mauritania

29%

3

Mauritius

100%

0

Morocco

99%

0.4

Mozambique

40%

16

Namibia

32%

2

Niger

15%

16

65% by 2030

Nigeria

45%

98

75% by 202090% by 2030

Rwanda

27%

8

100% by 2030

São Tomé and Príncipe

59%

0.1

Senegal

61%

6

70% by 2017 100% by 2025

Seychelles

98%

0

Sierra Leone

14%

5

92% by 2030

Somalia

15%

9

South Africa

86%

8

100% by 2019

South Sudan

1%

12

Sudan

40%

24

Swaziland2

66%

0.4

75% by 201885% by 2020100% by 2025

Tanzania

30%

36

75% by 2030

Togo

27%

5

82% by 2030

Tunisia

100%

0

Uganda

19%

31

98% by 2030

Zambia

28%

11

Zimbabwe

52%

7

66% by 203090% by 2030 (urban)51% by 2030 (rural)

Table R10. Electricity Access by Region and Country, 2014 and Targets (continued)

World / Region / Country

Electrification Rate in 2014

People Without Access to Electricity in 2014

Targets

Share of population with access

Millions

Share of population with access

Developing Asia

Bangladesh

62%

60

100% by 2021

Brunei

100%

0

Cambodia

34%

10

China

100%

0

India

81%

244

100% by 2019

Indonesia

84%

41

Korea, DPR

26%

18

90% by 2017

Lao PDR

87%

1

Malaysia

100%

0

Mongolia

90%

0.3

Myanmar

32%

36

Nepal

76%

7

Pakistan

73%

51

Philippines

89%

11

Table R10. Electricity Access by Region and Country, 2014 and Targets (continued)

World/Region/Country

Electrification Rate in 2014

People Without Access to Electricity in 2014

Targets

Share of population with access

Millions

Share of population with access

Developing Asia (continued)

Singapore

100%

0

Sri Lanka

99%

0.3

Thailand

99%

1

Vietnam

98%

2

Latin America

Argentina

96%

1.6

Barbados

100%

0

Bolivia

89%

1.2

100% by 2025 (rural)

Brazil

99.6%

0.8

Chile

100%

0

Colombia

98%

1.2

97.45% by 2017

Costa Rica

99.5%

0

Cuba

98%

0.2

Dominican Republic

97%

0.3

Ecuador

97%

0.5

98.9% by 2022 (urban)96.3% by 2022 (rural)

El Salvador

94%

0.4

Guatemala

90%

1.7

Haiti

29%

7.5

Honduras

89%

0.9

Jamaica

93%

0.2

Mexico

99%

3.7

Nicaragua

76%

1.4

Panama

91%

0.3

Paraguay

99%

0.1

Peru

90%

3

Suriname

90%

0.1

Trinidad and Tobago

97%

0

Uruguay

99%

0

Venezuela

99.7%

0.1

Table R10. Electricity Access by Region and Country, 2014 and Targets (continued)

World / Region / Country

Electrification Rate in 2014

People Without Access to Electricity in 2014

Targets

Share of population with access

Millions

Share of population with access

Middle East

Bahrain

100%

0

Iran

99%

1.1

Iraq

98%

0.6

Jordan

100%

0

Kuwait

100%

0

Lebanon

100%

0

Oman

98%

0.1

Palestine, State of3

99%

Qatar

100%

0

Saudi Arabia

99%

0.2

Syria

93%

1.6

United Arab Emirates

100%

0

Yemen

46%

14.2

Oceania

Micronesia, Federated States of 4

55%

0.0

90% by 2020 (rural)

World5

84%

1,186

1Botswana had an electricity access target for 2016.

2Swaziland data are for 2015.

3The State of Palestine rate is defined by the number of villages connected to the national electricity grid.

4For the Federated States of Micronesia, rural electrification rate is defined by electrification of all islands outside of the four that host the state capital (which is considered urban).

5Includes countries in the OECD and economies in transition.

Disclaimer: The tracking of data related to energy access and distributed renewable energy systems is a challenging process. Discrepancies or inconsistencies with past reporting may be due to improvements in data collection.

Source: See endnote 10 for this section.

Table R11. Population Relying on Traditional Use of Biomass for Cooking, 2014

World/Region/Country

Reliance on Traditional Biomass in 2014

Population

Targets

Share of population

Millions

Share of population with access to clean cooking

Africa

69%

793

Sub-Saharan Africa

81%

792

Northern Africa

0.4%

0.7

Developing Asia

50%

1,875

Latin America

14%

65

Middle East

4%

8

Africa

Angola

52%

13

100% by 2030

Benin

94%

10

Botswana

36%

1

Burkina Faso

95%

17

100% by 2030 (urban)

65% by 2030 (rural)

Burundi

98%

11

Cabo Verde

30%

0.2

100% by 2020

Cameroon

78%

18

Central African Republic

97%

5

Chad

95%

13

Comoros

74%

1

Congo

74%

3

Côte d'Ivoire

81%

18

Democratic Republic of the Congo

95%

71

Djibouti

16%

0.1

Equatorial Guinea

43%

0.4

Eritrea

63%

3

Ethiopia

95%

92

100% by 2025

Gabon

19%

0.3

Gambia

95%

2

100% by 2030

Ghana

82%

22

100% by 2030

Guinea

98%

12

50% by 2025

Guinea-Bissau

98%

2

75% by 2030

Kenya

85%

38

100% by 2022

Lesotho

62%

1

Liberia

98%

4

100% by 2030

Madagascar

98%

23

Malawi

97%

16

Mali

98%

17

100% by 2030

Mauritania

56%

2

Mauritius

0%

0

Morocco

2%

0.7

Mozambique

96%

26

Namibia

54%

1

Niger

97%

18

100% by 2030 (urban)

60% by 2030 (rural)

Nigeria

76%

134

Rwanda

98%

11

100% by 2030

São Tomé and Príncipe

70%

0.1

Senegal

61%

9

Sierra Leone

98%

6

Somalia

95%

10

South Africa

10%

5

South Sudan

98%

12

Sudan

69%

27

Swaziland

61%

1

100% by 2030

Tanzania

96%

50

75% by 2030

Togo

95%

7

80% by 2030

Uganda

98%

37

99% by 2030

Zambia

82%

13

Zimbabwe

71%

11

Table R11. Population Relying on Traditional Use of Biomass for Cooking, 2014 (continued)

World/Region/Country

Reliance on Traditional Biomass in 2014

Population

Targets

Share of population

Millions

Share of population with access to clean cooking

Developing Asia

Bangladesh

89%

142

Cambodia

89%

13

China

33%

453

India

63%

819

Indonesia

38%

97

Korea, DPR

47%

12

Lao PDR

65%

4

Mongolia

62%

2

Myanmar

92%

49

Nepal

80%

23

Pakistan

56%

105

Philippines

54%

54

Sri Lanka

73%

15

Thailand

21%

14

Vietnam

45%

40

Latin America

Argentina

0.2%

0.1

Bolivia

22%

2.3

Brazil

5%

9.6

Chile

3%

0.5

Colombia

13%

6.4

Costa Rica

5%

0.2

Cuba

6%

0.7

Dominican Republic

8%

0.8

Ecuador

2%

0.4

El Salvador

18%

1.1

Guatemala

64%

10.2

Haiti

92%

9.7

Honduras

50%

4

Jamaica

11%

0.3

Mexico

16%

19.6

Nicaragua

52%

3.1

Panama

14%

0.6

Paraguay

41%

2.7

Peru

33%

10.2

Venezuela

7%

2.5

Middle East

Iraq

1%

0.2

Yemen

31%

8.1

World1

38%

2,742

Table R12. Programmes Furthering Energy Access: Selected Examples

Name

Brief Description

Web Address

ACP-EU Energy Facility

A co-financing instrument that works to increase access to sustainable and affordable energy services in impoverished rural and peri-urban areas of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries by involving local authorities and communities.

https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/regions/african-caribbean-and-pacific-acp-region/acp-multi-country-cooperation/energy_en

Africa-EU Renewable Energy Cooperation Programme (RECP)

A programme that contributes to the African EU Energy Partnership’s political targets of increasing renewable energy use and bringing modern access to at least an additional 100 million people by 2020. It provides policy advice, private sector co-operation, project preparation support activities and capacity development.

http://www.africa-eu-partnership.org/en/newsroom/all-news/energy-africa-launch-renewable-energy-cooperation-programme

African Renewable Energy Fund (AREF)

A private equity fund that invests in small to medium-sized renewable energy projects in sub-Saharan Africa, excluding South Africa. It aims to assist governments in meeting their renewable energy and carbon emission targets, while creating jobs.

http://www.afdb.org/en/news-and-events/article/african-renewable-energy-fund-aref-launches-with-100m-committed-capital-12901/

Asian Development Bank – Energy for All Initiative

An initiative that strengthens ADB’s investments in energy access. From 2008 to 2016, ADB’s aggregate investment in energy access was around USD 7.2 billion, which is expected to benefit 110 million people.

http://www.adb.org/sectors/energy/programs/energy-for-all-initiative

Central America Clean Cooking Initiative (CACCI)

An initiative that aims to help scale up clean cooking solutions in countries such as Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and possibly El Salvador. Activities to be financed by the grant include development of a roadmap to achieve universal clean cooking access by 2030. The roadmap will build on the regional Sustainable Energy Strategy 2020.

https://www.esmap.org/node/4006

CleanStart

Developed by the UN Capital Development Fund and UNDP to help poor households and micro-entrepreneurs access micro-financing for low-cost clean energy. By 2020, it aims to invest USD 26 million in six countries in Asia and Africa, affecting the lives of more than 2.5 million people.

http://www.uncdf.org/en/cleanstart

Energising Development (EnDev)

A multilateral initiative supported by the governments of Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. It operates in 24 countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America with the aim of facilitating the sustainable access to modern energy services for at least 15 million people by the end of 2018. So far, EnDev has facilitated energy access for 14.8 million people.

http://endev.info/content/Main_Page

EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund (ITF)

A fund that combines grants and loans from the EU and its member states and banks to support local infrastructure projects, notably in electricity generation. Since 2007, more than 100 grants have been awarded to support projects for an amount of over USD 690 million (EUR 655 million).

http://www.eu-africa-infrastructure-tf.net/about/index.htm

Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC)

A public-private partnership created with the goal of enabling the adoption of 100 million clean and efficient cook stoves and fuels by 2020. GACC uses a market-based approach to bring together diverse groups of actors across government, development, NGOs, academia and the private sector to save lives, improve livelihoods, empower women and protect the environment through initiatives designed to catalyse and champion the sector, mobilise resources, promote standards and testing, and co-ordinate sector knowledge and research.

http://www.cleancookstoves.org/the-alliance/

Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund (GEEREF)

A sustainable development tool sponsored by the EU, Germany and Norway, advised by the European Investment Bank Group. It aims to mobilise public and private capital to support small and medium-sized renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.

http://geeref.com/posts/display/1

Global Lighting and Energy Access Partnership (Global LEAP)

An initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial that includes more than 10 governments and development partners. It provides support for quality assurance frameworks and programmes that encourage market transformation towards super-efficient technologies for off-grid use, including the Global LEAP Awards for Outstanding Off-Grid Products.

http://globalleap.org/

Table R12. Programmes Furthering Energy Access: Selected Examples (continued)

Name

Brief Description

Web Address

Green Climate Fund (GCF)

A fund established in 2010 by 194 countries that are party to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change that aims to invest in low-emission and climate-resilient development in developing countries. The fund is to mobilise USD 100 billion per year by 2020.

http://news.gcfund.org/

IDEAS – Energy Innovation Contest

A contest, launched in 2009, that supports the implementation of innovative projects in the areas of renewable energy, energy efficiency and energy access in Latin America and the Caribbean by promoting innovative energy solutions that can be replicated and scaled up in the region.

http://www.iadb.org/en/topics/energy/ideas/ideas,3808.html

IRENA – Abu Dhabi Fund for Development (ADFD) Facility

A partnership between IRENA and the ADFD to provide and facilitate finance for renewable energy projects in developing countries. The ADFD provides concessional loans of USD 5 million to USD 15 million to renewable energy projects in developing countries over seven funding rounds of approximately USD 50 million each. The Facility is currently running its fifth round, and since 2012 has allocated USD 189 million to 19 renewable energy projects.

http://adfd.irena.org/

Lighting a Billion Lives

A global initiative launched in 2008, steered by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), to facilitate access to clean lighting and cooking solutions for energy-starved communities. The programme operates on an entrepreneurial model of energy service delivery to provide innovative, affordable and reliable off-grid solar energy solutions. As of March 2016, it had facilitated access to clean lighting and cooking solutions for more than 4.5 million people in India, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

http://labl.teriin.org/

Lighting Africa

An IFC and World Bank programme to accelerate the development of sustainable markets for affordable, modern off-grid lighting solutions for low-income households and micro-enterprises across Africa. As of end-2016, Lighting Africa had provided access to clean, safe lighting for more than 20 million people.

http://www.lightingafrica.org/

Lighting Asia

An IFC market transformation programme aimed at increasing access to clean, affordable energy in Asia by promoting modern off-grid lighting products, systems and mini-grid connections. The programme works with the private sector to remove market entry barriers, provide market intelligence, foster business-to-business linkages and raise consumer awareness on modern lighting options. In India alone, Phase I of the programme (2012-2016) enabled energy access for more than 8 million people.

http://www.lightingasia.org/

OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID)

A development aid institution with a 40-year standing and a presence in over 130 countries. It works in co-operation with developing country partners and the international donor community to stimulate economic growth and alleviate poverty. Since 2008, the year that OFID launched its Energy for the Poor Initiative (EPI), energy poverty alleviation has been the primary strategic focus. In June 2012, the OFID Ministerial Council committed a minimum of USD 1 billion to bolster activities under the EPI, and in 2013 it turned this commitment from a one-time obligation to a revolving pledge.

http://www.ofid.org/

Power Africa’s Beyond the Grid Initiative

An initiative launched in 2014 focused on unlocking investment and growth for off-grid and small-scale energy solutions on the African continent. Beyond the Grid has partnered with over 40 investors and practitioners that have committed to invest over USD 1 billion into off-grid and small-scale energy. In 2016 alone, through the initiative, the US African Development Foundation (USADF), USAID and General Electric funded more than 30 entrepreneurs working on home and micro-grid energy projects in Africa. In March 2016, Sweden and Power Africa launched the USD 21 million (EUR 20 million) Beyond the Grid Fund for Zambia, which between 2016 and 2018 will support rural energy providers with market-based approaches to expanding energy access. The goal is to provide energy access to 1 million people.

https://www.usaid.gov/powerafrica/beyondthegrid

Table R12. Programmes Furthering Energy Access: Selected Examples (continued)

Name

Brief Description

Web Address

Readiness for Investment in Sustainable Energy (RISE)

A World Bank Group project providing indicators that compare the investment climate of countries across the three focus areas of the SEforALL initiative: energy access, energy efficiency and renewable energy.

http://rise.worldbank.org/

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP)

An international multilateral partnership that works to accelerate market-based deployment of renewable energy and energy efficient systems in developing countries. REEEP manages several initiatives and programmes which further energy access, including the Power Africa: Beyond the Grid Fund for Zambia, the Kilimo Biashara Sustainable Energy Fund, and the Cambodian Clean Energy Revolving Fund, among others.

http://www.reeep.org/

Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries (SREP)

A Strategic Climate Fund (SCF) programme that was established to expand renewable energy markets and scale up renewable energy deployment in the world’s poorest countries. To date, USD 264 million has been approved for 23 projects and programmes. An additional USD 1.9 billion in co-financing is expected from other sources.

http://www.climateinvestmentfunds.org/fund/scaling-renewable-energy-program

SNV Netherlands Development Organisation – Biogas Practice

A multi-actor sector development approach that supports the preparation and implementation of national biogas programmes throughout the world. In co-operation with its partners, by end-2015 SNV had installed over 700,000 bio-digesters in Asia, Africa and Latin America, impacting 3.5 million people.

http://www.snv.org/sector/energy/topic/biogas

Sustainable Energy for All Initiative (SEforALL)

A global initiative of former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon with three objectives for 2030: achieving universal access to electricity and clean cooking solutions; doubling the share of the world’s energy supplied by renewable sources; and doubling the rate of improvement in energy efficiency.

http://www.se4all.org

Sustainable Energy Fund for Africa (SEFA)

A fund administered by the African Development Bank and anchored by a Danish government commitment of USD 57 million to support small and medium-scale clean energy and energy efficiency projects in Africa through grants for technical assistance and capacity building, investment capital and guidance.

http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-and-sectors/initiatives-partnerships/sustainable-energy-fund-for-africa/

Table R13. Networks Furthering Energy Access: Selected Examples

Name

Brief Description

Web Address

African Bioenergy Development Platform

A platform launched by UNCTAD to help interested African countries develop their bioenergy potentials for advancing human and economic development through interactive, multi-stakeholder analytical exercises.

http://unctad.org/en/Pages/MeetingDetails.aspx?meetingid=347

African Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies (ACREST)

A centre established in 2005 for information, demonstration, awareness, production and research on renewable energy and sustainable technologies in Africa. Its mission is to promote renewable energy technologies and sustainable technologies to improve people’s living conditions and to fight poverty.

http://www.acrest.org

African Renewable Energy Alliance (AREA)

A global multi-stakeholder platform to exchange information and to consult about policies, technologies and financial mechanisms for the accelerated uptake of renewable energy in Africa.

http://www.area-net.org/

AKON Lighting Africa

An initiative launched in February 2014 that seeks to provide a concrete response at the grassroots level to Africa’s energy crisis and to lay the foundations for future development. It aims to develop an innovative solar-powered solution that will provide African villages with access to a clean and affordable source of electricity.

http://akonlightingafrica.com/

Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE)

An international business association that represents the decentralised energy sector and works towards the integration of renewables into rural electrification markets in developing and emerging countries. It has more than 90 members along the whole value chain of off-grid technologies.

http://www.ruralelec.org/

Alliance of CSOs for Clean Energy Access (ACCESS)

A coalition consisting of a range of civil society organisations (CSOs), both international and national. ACCESS aims to strengthen the visibility and presence of CSOs working to deliver universal energy access, particularly within SEforALL, Sustainable Development Goal 7 implementation and other global energy initiatives. ACCESS is co-ordinated by WWF, CAFOD, Practical Action, Greenpeace, IIED, ENERGIA, WRI, TERI and HIVOS.

https://access-coalition.org/

Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN)

The operational arm of the UNFCCC Technology Mechanism, hosted by UN Environment and UNIDO. CTCN promotes the accelerated transfer of environmentally sound technologies for low-carbon and climate-resilient development at the request of developing countries. It provides technology solutions, capacity building and advice on policy, legal and regulatory frameworks tailored to the needs of individual countries.

https://www.ctc-n.org/

Climate Technology Initiative Private Financing Advisory Network (CTI PFAN)

A multilateral, public-private partnership initiated by the Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) in co-operation with the UNFCCC Expert Group on Technology Transfer. PFAN operates to bridge the gap between investments and clean energy businesses. It is designed to be an “open source” network to fit seamlessly with existing global and regional initiatives and to be inclusive of all stakeholders with an interest in clean energy financing.

http://www.cti-pfan.net/

Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP)

A global partnership of 34 leading organisations, housed at the World Bank, that seeks to advance financial inclusion. It develops innovative solutions through practical research and active engagement with financial service providers, policy makers and funders to enable approaches at scale.

http://www.cgap.org/

ENERGIA International

An international network of more than 22 organisations working in Africa and Asia that are focused on gender issues, women’s empowerment and sustainable energy.

http://www.energia.org/

Energy Access Practitioner Network

A global network of over 2,500 members representing small, medium-sized and large clean energy enterprises; civil society; government and academia and operating in over 170 countries. The Practitioner Network was established in 2011 to catalyse the delivery of modern energy services, particularly decentralised solutions for rural electrification.

http://www.energyaccess.org

Table R13. Networks Furthering Energy Access: Selected Examples (continued)

Name

Brief Description

Web Address

Energy & Environment Partnership (EEP)

A challenge fund that promotes renewable energy, energy efficiency and clean technology investments in Southern and East Africa. EEP supports projects that aim to provide sustainable energy services to the poor and to combat climate change. The EEP Programme is jointly funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland, the Austrian Development Agency and the UK Department for International Development.

http://eepafrica.org/

Energy for All Partnership (E4ALL)

A regional platform for co-operation, knowledge, technical exchange and key project development. It brings together key stakeholders from the private sector, financial institutions, governments, bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental development partners. The Partnership, led by the ADB, aims to provide access to safe, clean and affordable modern energy to 200 million households in the Oceania region by 2020.

https://www.adb.org/sectors/energy/programs/energy-for-all-initiative

Global Renewable Energy Islands Network (GREIN)

A network created to help islands accelerate their renewable energy uptake. It serves as a platform for pooling knowledge, sharing best practices and seeking innovative solutions for the accelerated update of clean and cost-effective renewable energy technologies in island states and territories.

https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/partnership/?p=8011

HEDON Household Energy Network

A network aimed at empowering practitioners to unlock barriers to household energy access by addressing knowledge gaps, facilitating partnerships and fostering information sharing.

http://www.hedon.info/tiki-index.php

International Network for Sustainable Energy (INFORSE)

A network of 140 NGOs operating in 60 countries that was established as part of the Rio Convention. It is dedicated to promoting sustainable energy and social development and is funded by a mix of national governments, multilateral institutions and CSOs. INFORSE focuses on four areas: raising awareness about sustainable energy use; promoting institutional reform among national governments; building local and national capacity on energy-related issues; and supporting R&D.

http://www.inforse.org/

La Via Campesina (LVC)

Informally known as the “international peasants’ movement”, LVC is a group of about 150 organisational members that co-ordinate migrant workers, farmers, rural women and indigenous communities on rural development issues. The sustainable agriculture, water and women and human rights programmes deal with various aspects of rural energy use, especially the connections between food security and biofuels.

http://viacampesina.org/

RedBioLAC

A multinational network of institutions involved in research and dissemination of anaerobic bio-digestion and the treatment and management of organic waste in Latin America and the Caribbean.

http://www.wisions.net/pages/redbiolac

Small-Scale Sustainable Infrastructure Development Fund (S3IDF)

A fund that promotes a Social Merchant Bank approach to help local entrepreneurs create micro-enterprises that provide infrastructure services to the poor. As of early 2015, it had a portfolio of almost 200 small investments and associated enterprises in India, and an additional 100 projects in the pipeline.

http://s3idf.org/

Wind Empowerment

A global association for the development of locally built small-scale wind turbines for sustainable rural electrification.

http://windempowerment.org/

Table R14. Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment, 2006-2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Billion USD

New Investment by Stage

Government R&D

2.2

2.7

2.8

5.4

4.9

4.8

4.7

5.2

4.5

4.4

5.5

Corporate R&D

2.9

3.2

3.6

3.8

3.9

4.5

4.2

4.0

3.9

4.2

2.5

Venture capital

1.2

2.1

3.3

1.6

2.7

2.7

2.5

0.9

1.1

1.6

1.1

Private equity expansion capital

3.1

3.5

6.9

3.1

5.5

2.4

1.7

1.4

1.8

1.9

2.2

Public markets

9.3

21.4

10.8

12.7

10.8

9.9

4.0

10.3

15.9

13.3

6.3

Asset finance

85.5

114.9

135.6

120.5

155.1

183.5

169.4

159.3

194.4

237.4

187.1

(re-invested equity)

0.8

2.6

3.6

1.9

1.5

1.8

2.6

1.0

3.3

6.1

2.9

Small-scale distributed capacity

9.4

14.0

22.1

33.0

62.2

75.2

71.6

54.4

60.0

55.5

39.8

Total New Investment

112.7

159.3

181.4

178.3

243.6

281.2

255.5

234.4

278.2

312.2

241.6

Total Transactions

148.5

217.9

240.9

242.5

302.4

354.2

322.1

300.5

364.8

406.3

351.9

New Investment by Technology

Solar power

21.9

38.9

61.3

64.0

103.6

154.9

140.6

119.1

143.9

171.7

113.7

Wind power

39.7

61.1

74.8

79.7

101.6

84.2

84.4

89.0

108.5

124.2

112.5

Bio-poweri

12.8

23.0

17.5

15.0

16.6

19.9

14.9

12.4

10.8

6.7

6.8

Hydropower <50 MW

7.5

6.4

7.6

6.2

8.1

7.5

6.4

5.6

6.4

3.5

3.5

Biofuels

28.6

27.4

18.4

10.2

10.5

10.6

7.2

5.2

5.3

3.5

2.2

Geothermal power

1.4

1.7

1.7

2.8

2.9

3.9

1.6

2.9

2.9

2.3

2.7

Ocean energy

0.8

0.8

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2

Total New Investment

112.7

159.3

181.4

178.3

243.6

281.2

255.5

234.4

278.2

312.2

241.6

i Includes solid biomass and waste-to-power technologies, but not waste-to-gas.

Table R15. Share of Primary and Final Energy from Renewable Sources, Targets and 2014/2015 Shares

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Primary Energy

Final Energy

Share

Target

Share

Target

Albania

18% by 2020

35%

38% by 2020

Algeria

37% by 2030[40% by 2030]

Armenia

16%

21% by 2020

26% by 2025

Austria1

33%

45% by 2020

Azerbaijan

0.5%

Bangladesh

10% by 2020

Barbados

3%

Belarus

5.7%

28% by 2015

32% by 2020

Belgium

9.7% by 2020

8%

13% by 2020

Wallonia

20% by 2020

Bosnia and Herzegovina

20% by 2016

40% by 2020

Botswana

1% by 2016

Brazil

39.4%

45% by 2030

Bulgaria

16%

16% by 2020

Burundi

2.1% by 2020

China2

10%

15% by 2020

20% by 2030

Côte d’Ivoire

5% by 2015

15% by 2020

20% by 2030

Croatia

29%

20% by 2020

Cyprus

9.4%

13% by 2020

Czech Republic1

13%

13.5% by 2020

Denmark

30%

35% by 2020

100% by 2050

Djibouti

17% by 2035

Egypt

14% by 2020

Estonia

25%

25% by 2020

Fiji

23% by 2030

Finland

39.3%

25% by 2015

38% by 2020

40% by 2025

France

15%

23% by 2020

32% by 2030

Gabon

80% by 2020

Germany1

14%

18% by 2020

30% by 2030

45% by 2040

60% by 2050

Ghana

Increase 10% by 2030 (base year 2010)

Greece1

15%

20% by 2020

Grenada

20% by 2020

Table R15. Share of Primary and Final Energy from Renewable Sources, Targets and 2014/2015 Shares (continued)

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Primary Energy

Final Energy

Share

Target

Share

Target

Guatemala

31%

80% by 2026

Guinea

30% by 2030

Guyana

15%

20% by 2025

Hungary1

15%

14.65% by 2020

Iceland

70%

64% by 2020

Indonesia

25% by 2025

Ireland

9.2%

16% by 2020

Israel

13% by 2025

17% by 2030

Italy

18%

17% by 2020

Jamaica

8%

7.8%

20% by 2030

Japan

5.8%

14% by 2030

Jordan

11% by 2025

Korea, Republic of

4.3% by 2015

6.1% by 2020

11% by 2030

Kosovo3

25% by 2020

Lao PDR

30% by 2025

Latvia

38%

40% by 2020

Lebanon

15% by 2030

Liberia

10% by 2030

Libya

10% by 2020

Lithuania

20% by 2025

26%

23% by 2020

Luxembourg

5%

11% by 2020

Macedonia, FYR of

20%

28% by 2020

Madagascar

54% by 2020

Malawi

5.5%

7% by 2020

Mali

15% by 2020

Malta

5%

10% by 2020

Mauritania

15% by 2015

20% by 2020

Moldova

20% by 2020

17% by 2020

Mongolia

20-25% by 2020

Montenegro

43%

33% by 2020

Nauru

50% by 2015

Nepal

10% by 2030

Netherlands1

6%

16% by 2020

Niger

10% by 2020

Norway

69%

67.5% by 2020

Palau

20% by 2020

Palestine, State of

25% by 2020

Panama

18%

18.3% by 2023

Table R15. Share of Primary and Final Energy from Renewable Sources, Targets and 2014/2015 Shares (continued)

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Primary Energy

Final Energy

Share

Target

Share

Target

Poland

12% by 2020

12%

15.5% by 2020

Portugal

28%

31% by 2020

40% by 2030

Romania

25%

24% by 2020

Samoa

20% by 2030

Serbia

27% by 2020

Slovak Republic

13%

14% by 2020

Slovenia

22%

25% by 2020

Spain1

14%

16%

20.8% by 2020

St. Lucia

0.2%

20% by 2020

Sweden1

54%

50% by 2020

Switzerland

24% by 2020

Syria

4.3% by 2030

Thailand

25% by 2021

30% by 2036

Togo

4% (no date)

Ukraine

2.7%

18% by 2030

11% by 2020

United Arab Emirates

<1%

24% by 2021

United Kingdom

8.2%

15% by 2020

Uzbekistan

16% by 2030

19% by 2050

Vanuatu

65% by 2020

Vietnam

5% by 2020

8% by 2025

11% by 2050

1 Final energy targets by 2020 for all EU-28 countries are set under EU Directive 2009/28/EC. The governments of Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Spain and Sweden have set higher targets, which are shown here. The government of the Netherlands has reduced its more ambitious target to the level set in the EU Directive.

2 The Chinese target is for share of “non-fossil” energy. All targets include nuclear power.

3 Kosovo is not a member of the United Nations.

Note: Actual percentages are rounded to the nearest whole decimal for numbers over 10% except where associated targets are expressed differently. Historical targets have been added as they are identified by REN21. Only bolded targets are new/revised in 2016. A number of nations have already exceeded their renewable energy targets. In many of these cases, targets serve as a floor setting the minimum share of renewable energy for the country. Some countries shown have other types of targets ( see Tables R10, R16, R17, R18 and R19).

Source: See endnote 15 for this section.

Table R16. Renewable Energy Targets for Technology-Specific Share of Primary and Final Energy

Country

Technology

Target

Guinea-Bissau

Solar PV

2% of primary energy by 2015

Indonesia

Hydropower, solar PV, wind power

1.4% share in primary energy (combined) by 2025

Biofuels

10.2% biofuel share of primary energy by 2025

Samoa

Final energy

Increase the renewable share of final energy supply 20% by 2030 (base year 2007)

Spain

Bioenergy from solid biomass, biogas and organic MSW1

0.1% of final energy by 2020

Geothermal energy, ocean power and heat pumps2

5.8% of final energy by 2020

Hydropower

2.9% of final energy by 2020

Solar PV

3% of final energy by 2020

Wind power

6.3% of final energy by 2020

1 It is not always possible to determine whether data for municipal solid waste (MSW) include non-organic waste (plastics, metal, etc.) or only the organic biomass share.

2 The energy output of heat pumps is at least partially renewable on a final energy basis, which is why they are included in this table. For more information, see Sidebar 4, GSR 2014.

Note: Some countries shown have other types of targets ( see Tables R10, R15, R17, R18 and R19).

Source: See endnote 16 for this section.

Table R17. Share of Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources, Targets and 2015 Shares

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Share

Target

Afghanistan1

100% by 2050

Algeria

27% by 2030

Antigua and Barbuda

10% by 2020

15% by 2030

Argentina

8% by 2018

20% by 2025

Armenia

34%

40% by 2025

Aruba

100% by 2020

Australia

South Australia

Tasmania

Victoria

10%

23% by 2020

50% by 2020

100% by 2020

20% by 2020
40% by 2025

Austria

70.3%

70.6% by 2020

Azerbaijan

16%

20% by 2020

Bahamas, The

15% by 2020

30% by 2030

Bahrain

5% by 2030

Bangladesh1

10% by 2020100% by 2050

Barbados1

29% by 202965% by 2030 100% by 2050

Belgium

15.4%

20.9% by 2020

Belize

85% by 2017

Bhutan1

100% by 2050

Bolivia

79% by 2030

Brazil2

23% by 2030

Brunei Darussalam

10% by 2035

Bulgaria

19.1%

20.6% by 2020

Burkina Faso1

100% by 2050

Cabo Verde

100% by 2020 [100% by 2035] [50% by 2020]

Cambodia1

25% by 2035100% by 2050

Canada3

Alberta

British Columbia

New Brunswick

Nova Scotia

Saskatchewan

7.3%

No national target

30% by 2030

93% (no date given)

40% by 2020

40% by 2020

50% by 2030

Chile

8.5%

20% by 2025

China

Taipei

 

4%

No national target

20% by 2025

Country

Share

Target

Colombia1

100% by 2050

Comoros1

43% by 2030100% by 2050

Congo, Republic of

85% by 2025

Costa Rica

100% by 2030

Côte d’Ivoire

42% by 2020

Croatia

45%

39% by 2020

Cuba

24% by 2030

Cyprus

8.4%

16% by 2020

Czech Republic

14%

14.3% by 2020

Democratic Republic of the Congo1

100% by 2050

Denmark4

51%

50% by 2020

100% by 2050

Djibouti

35% by 2035

Dominica

100% (no date)

Dominican Republic1

25% by 2025100% by 2050

Ecuador

90% by 2017 [85% by 2017]

Egypt

20% by 2022 [20% by 2020]

Eritrea

70% by 2030

Estonia

15.1%

17.6% by 2020

Ethiopia1

100% by 2050

Fiji

100% by 2030

Finland

33%

33% by 2020

France

19%

27% by 2020 40% by 2030

Gabon

70% by 2020 80% by 2025

Gambia1

35% by 2020100% by 2050

Germany

31%

40–45% by 2025

55–60% by 2035

80% by 2050

Ghana1

10% by 2020100% by 2050

Greece

22%

40% by 2020

Grenada1

100% by 2050

Guatemala1

80% by 2030 100% by 2050

Guyana

90% (no date)

Haiti1

47% by 2030100% by 2050

Honduras1

60% by 2022

80% by 2038100% by 2050

Table R17. Share of Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources, Targets and 2015 Shares (continued)

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Share

Target

Hungary

7.3%

10.9% by 2020

India5

Andaman and Nicobar

Andhra Pradesh

Arunchal Pradesh

Assam

Bihar

 

Chandigarh

Chattisgarh

 

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

Daman and Diu

Delhi

 

Goa

 

Gujarat

 

Haryana

 

Himachal Pradesh

 

Jammu and Kashmir

 

Jharkhand

 

Karnataka

Kerala

 

Lakshadweep

Madhya Pradesh

Maharashtra

Manipur

Meghalaya

Mizoram

Nagaland

Orissa

Pondicherry

Punjab

Rajasthan

Tamil Nadu

Tripura

Uttar Pradesh

Uttarakhand

West Bengal

40% by 2030

3% (0.4% solar)

7% (0.2% solar)

7% (0.2% solar)

7% (0.25% solar)

5% (0.75% solar)
3% solar by 2022

3% (0.4% solar)

6.75% (0.75% solar)

7.25% by 2016

3% (0.4% solar)

3% (0.4% solar)

6.2% (0.25% solar)
9% by 2017

3.3% (0.6% solar)
6% by 2022

9% (1.5% solar)
10% by 2017

3.25% (0.25% solar)

5.5% by 2022

10.25% (0.25% solar)

19% by 2022

6% (0.75% solar)
9% by 2017

4% (1% solar)

4% by 2016

10.25% (0.25% solar)

4.5% (0.25% solar)
6.6% by 2022

3% (0.4% solar)

7% (1% solar)

9% (0.5% solar)

5% (0.25% solar)

1% (0.4% solar)

7% (0.25% solar)

8% (0.25% solar)

6.5% (0.25% solar)

3% (0.4% solar)

4% (0.19% solar)

9% (1.5% solar)

11% (2% solar)

2.5% (1.05% solar)

6% (1% solar)

7.075% (0.075% solar)

4.5% (0.15% solar)

Indonesia

26% by 2025

Iraq

10% by 2030

Country

Share

Target

Ireland

25.2%

42.5% by 2020

Israel

3%

10% by 2020

17% by 2030

Italy

34%

26% by 2020

Jamaica

20% by 2030

Japan

7.9%

22-24% by 2030

Kazakhstan

3% by 2020

50% by 2030

Kenya1

100% by 2050

Kiribati1

3% by 2020100% by 2050

Korea, Republic of

3.7%

5% by 2018 (4.5% by 2018)6% by 2019 (5% by 2019)7% by 2020 (6% by 2020)

Kuwait

10% (no date)

Latvia

52%

60% by 2020

Lebanon1

12% by 2020100% by 2050

Liberia

30% by 2021

Libya

7% by 2020

10% by 2025

Lithuania

16%

21% by 2020

Luxembourg

6.2%

11.8% by 2020

Macedonia, FYR of

22%

24.7% by 2020

Madagascar1

79% (no date)100% by 2050

Malawi1

100% by 2050

Malaysia

9% by 2020

11% by 2030

15% by 2050

Maldives1

16% by 2017100% by 2050

Mali6

25% by 2033

Malta

4.2%

3.8% by 2020

Marshall Islands1

20% by 2020100% by 2050

Mauritius

35% by 2025

Mexico

8.9%

35% by 2024

50% by 2050

Moldova

10% by 2020

Montenegro

51.4% by 2020

Mongolia1

20% by 2020

30% by 2030100% by 2050

Table R17. Share of Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources, Targets and 2015 Shares (continued)

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Share

Target

Morocco1

52% by 2030 [52% by 2039]100% by 2050

Myanmar

15–18% by 2020

Namibia

70% by 2030

Nepal1

100% by 2050

Netherlands

11%

37% by 2020

New Zealand

Cook Islands

Niue

Tokelau

29%

90% by 2025

100% by 2020

100% by 2020

100% (no date)

Nicaragua

90% by 2027

Niger1

100% by 2050

Nigeria7

10% by 2020

Palau1

100% by 2050

Palestine, State of 1

10% by 2020100% by 2050

Papua New Guinea

100% by 2030

Paraguay

60% increase from 2014 to 2030

Peru

60% by 2025

Philippines1

40% by 2020100% by 2050

Poland

13.4%

19.3% by 2020

Portugal

53%

60% by 2020

Qatar

2% by 2020

20% by 2030

Romania

43%

43% by 2020

Russian Federation8

4.5% by 2020

Rwanda1

100% by 2050

Samoa

100% by 2030

São Tomé and Príncipe

47% (no date)

Senegal1

20% by 2017100% by 2050

Serbia

37% by 2020

Seychelles

5% by 2020

15% by 2030

Sierra Leone

33% by 2020

36% by 2030

Singapore

8% (no date)

Slovak Republic

23%

24% by 2020

Slovenia

33%

39.3% by 2020

Solomon Islands

100% by 2030

South Africa

9% by 2030

South Sudan1

100% by 2050

Spain

36.9%

38.1% by 2020

Country

Share

Target

Sri Lanka1

10% by 2016

20% by 2020100% by 2050

St. Lucia1

35% by 2020100% by 2050

St. Vincent and the Grenadines

60% by 2020

Sudan1

20% by 2030100% by 2050

Sweden

65.8%

62.9% by 2020

Tajikistan

10% (no date)

Tanzania1

100% by 2050

Thailand9

20% by 2036

Timor-Leste1

50% by 2020100% by 2050

Togo

15% by 2020

Tonga

50% by 2020

Tunisia1

11% by 2016

30% by 2030100% by 2050

Turkey

33%

30% by 2023

Tuvalu

100% by 2020

Uganda

61% by 2017

Ukraine

11% by 2020

20% by 2030

United Arab Emirates

Abu Dhabi

Dubai

No national target

7% by 2020

7% by 2020

15% by 2030

United Kingdom

Scotland

22%

No national target

100% by 2020

United States10

Arizona

California

 

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Hawaii

 

 

Illinois

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

 

Minnesota

 

 

Missouri

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

Ohio

Oregon

 

 

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

Vermont

 

Washington

District of Columbia

Northern Mariana Islands

Puerto Rico

US Virgin Islands

 

8.4%

No national target

15% by 2025

33% by 2020
50% by 2030

30% by 202011

27% by 2020

25% by 2026

25% by 2020

40% by 2030

100% by 2045

25% by 2026 [25% by 2015-2016]

40% by 2017

25% by 2020 [20% by 2020]

15% by 2020 and an additional 1% each year thereafter

15% by 2021
[10% by 2015]

31.5% by 2020 (Xcel)
[25% by 2025 (other utilities)]
26.5% by 2025 (IOUs)11

15% by 202111

25% by 2025

24.8% by 2025

20.38% by 2020 and 4.1% solar by 2027

20% by 2020 (IOUs)1110% by 2020 (co-ops)12

50% by 2030

10% by 2018 (co-ops)12 12.5% by 202111

12.5% by 2026 [25% by 2024]

50% by 2040 [25% by 2025 (utilities with 3% or more of state’s load); 10% by 2025 (utilities with 1.5- 3% of state’s load); 5% by 2025 (utilities with less than 1.5% of state’s load)]

18% by 2021

38.5% by 2035 [16% by 2019]

55% by 2017, increasing by 4% every 3 years
until reaching 75% by 2032

15% by 2020

50% by 2032 [20% by 2020]

20% by 2016 [80% by 2015]

20% by 2035

30% by 2025 [30% by 2030]

Uruguay

95% by 2017

Vanuatu

100% by 2030

Vietnam1

7% by 2020
10% by 2030
[5% by 2020]
100% by 2050

Yemen1

15% by 2025
100% by 2050

1 100% by 2050 target established by the Climate Vulnerable Forum.

2 Brazil’s target excludes all hydropower.

3 Canada's share excludes all hydropower.

4 In March 2012, Denmark set a target of 50% electricity consumption supplied by wind power by 2020.

5 India does not classify hydropower installations larger than 25 MW as renewable energy sources, so hydro >25 MW is excluded from national shares and targets. De facto sub-national targets have been set through existing RPS policies.

6 Mali’s target excludes large-scale hydropower.

7 Nigeria’s target excludes hydropower plants >30 MW.

8 The Russian Federation's targets exclude hydropower plants >25 MW.

9 Thailand does not classify hydropower installations larger than 6 MW as renewable energy sources, so hydro >6 MW is excluded from national shares and targets.

10 The United States does not have a renewable electricity target at the national level. De facto state-level targets have been set through existing RPS policies.

11 RPS mandate for Investor-owned utilities (IOUs), which are utilities operating under private control rather than government or co-operative operation.

12 RPS mandate for co-operative utilities.

Note: Unless otherwise noted, all targets and corresponding shares represent all renewables including hydropower. A number of state/provincial and local jurisdictions have additional targets not listed here. Historical targets have been added as they are identified by REN21. Only bolded targets are new/revised in 2016. A number of nations have already exceeded their renewable energy targets. In many of these cases, targets serve as a floor setting the minimum share of renewable electricity for the country. Some countries shown have other types of targets (Tables R10 and R12–R22). See Policy Landscape chapter for more information about sub-national targets. Existing shares are indicative and may need adjusting if more accurate national statistics are published. Sources for reported data often do not specify the accounting method used; therefore, shares of electricity are likely to include a mixture of different accounting methods and thus are not directly comparable or consistent across countries. Where shares sourced from EUROSTAT differed from those provided to REN21 by country contributors, the former was given preference.

Source: See endnote 17 for this section.

Table R18. Renewable Energy Targets for Technology-Specific Share of Electricity Generation

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016 and brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted.

Country

Technology

Target

Benin

Generation (off-grid and rural)

50% by 2025

Colombia

Generation (grid-connected)1

3.5% by 2015; 6.5% by 2020

Generation (off-grid)

20% by 2015; 30% by 2020

Denmark

Wind power

50% by 2020

Djibouti

Solar PV (off-grid and rural)

30% by 2017

Dominican Republic

Distributed power (rooftop solar)

20% by 2016

Egypt

Wind power

12% and 7.2 GW by 2020

Eritrea

Wind power

50% (no date)

Guinea

Solar power

6% of generation by 2025

Wind power

2% of generation by 2025

Haiti

Bio-power

5.6% by 2030

Hydropower

24.5% by 2030

Solar power

7.55% by 2030

Wind power

9.4% by 2030

Japan

Bio-power

3.7-4.6% by 2030

Geothermal power

1-1.1% by 2030

Hydropower

8.8-9.2% by 2030

Solar PV

7% by 2030

Wind power

1.7% by 2030

Latvia

Bio-power from solid biomass

8% by 2016

Lesotho

Generation (not specified)

35% of off-grid and rural electrification by 2020

Micronesia, Federated States of

Generation (not specified)

10% in urban centres and 50% in rural areas by 2020

Myanmar

Generation (not specified)

30% of rural electrification by 2030

Trinidad and Tobago

Generation (not specified)

5% of peak demand (or 60 MW) by 2020

1 Colombia’s target is to be met by “non-conventional sources of energy”, which includes nuclear energy and renewables, small- and large-scale self-supply and distributed power generation, and non-diesel power generation in non-interconnected zones.

Note: Unless otherwise noted, all targets and corresponding shares represent all renewables including hydropower. A number of state/provincial and local jurisdictions have additional targets not listed here. Some countries shown have other types of targets ( see Tables R12-R22). See Policy Landscape chapter and Table R23 for more information about sub-national and municipal-level targets, and see Table R10 for electricity access-specific targets. Existing shares are indicative and may need adjusting if more accurate national statistical data are published.

Source: See endnote 18 for this section.

Table R19.Targets for Renewable Power Installed Capacity and/or Generation (continued)

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Technology

Target

Algeria

Capacity (not specified)

22 GW by 2030

Bio-power from waste-to-energy

1 GW by 2030

Geothermal power

15 MW by 2030

Solar PV

13.5 GW by 2030

CSP

2 GW by 2030

Wind power

5 GW by 2030

Antigua and Barbuda

Capacity (not specified)

5 MW by 2030

Argentina

Capacity (not specified)

3 GW by 2018

Armenia

Hydropower (small-scale)

377 MW by 2020; 397 MW by 2025

Geothermal power

50 MW by 2020; 100 MW by 2025

Solar PV

40 MW by 2020; 80 MW by 2025

Wind power

50 MW by 2020; 100 MW by 2025

Austria

Bio-power from solid biomass and biogas

200 MW added 2010-2020

Hydropower

1 GW added 2010-2020

Solar PV

1.2 GW added 2010-2020

Wind power

2 GW added 2010-2020

Azerbaijan

Capacity (not specified)

1 GW by 2020

Bangladesh

Bio-power from solid biomass

100,000 plants of 2.6 m3 capacity capable of producing 40 MW of electricity

Bio-power from biogas

7 MW by 2017

Biogas digesters

150,000 plants by 2016

Solar PV (off-grid and rural)

6 million solar home systems by 2016 (240 MW total); 50 mini-grids of 150 kW each; 1,550 solar irrigation pumps by 2017

Wind power

400 MW by 2030

Belgium

No national target

Flanders

Solar PV

Increase production 30% by 2020

Wallonia

Generation (not specified)

8 TWh per year by 2020

Bhutan

Capacity (not specified)

20 MW by 2025

Bio-power from solid biomass

5 MW by 2025

Solar PV

5 MW by 2025

Wind power

5 MW by 2025

Bolivia

Capacity (not specified)

160 MW added 2015–2025

Bosnia and

Herzegovina

Hydropower

120 MW by 2030

Solar PV

4 MW by 2030

Wind power

175 MW by 2030

Brazil

Bio-power

18 GW by 2024

Hydropower (small-scale)

8 GW by 2024

Hydropower (large-scale)

117 GW by 2024

Wind power

24 GW by 2024

Solar

7 GW by 2024

Bulgaria

Hydropower

Three 174 MW plants commissioned by 2017–2018

Burundi

Bio-power from solid biomass

4 MW (no date)

Hydropower

212 MW (no date)

Solar PV

40 MW (no date)

Wind power

10 MW (no date)

Table R19. Targets for Renewable Power Installed Capacity and/or Generation (continued)

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Technology

Target

Canada

No national target

Ontario

Capacity (not specified)

20 GW by 2025 supplied by a mix of renewable technologies, including:

Hydropower

9.3 GW by 2025

Solar PV

40 MW by 2025

Wind power

5 GW by 2025

Prince Edward Island

Wind power

30 MW increase by 2030 (base year 2011)

China

Capacity (not specified)

680 GW non-fossil fuel generation capacity by 2020

Hydropower

340 GW by 2020

Solar power

110 GW by 2020 [150 GW by 2020] of which 5 GW is CSP

Wind power

210 GW by 2020 [250 GW by 2020] of which 5 GW is offshore

Taipei

Capacity (not specified)

8,303 MW by 2020; 12,513 MW by 2025; 17,250 MW by 2030

Bio-power

768 MW by 2020; 813 MW by 2025; 950 MW by 2030

Geothermal power

10 MW by 2020; 150 MW by 2025; 200 MW by 2030

Solar PV

1,115 MW by 2015; 3,615 MW by 2020; 6.2 GW by 2025; 8.7 GW by 2030

Wind power (onshore)

1.2 GW by 2020; 1.2 GW by 2025; 1.2 GW by 2025

Wind power (offshore)

520 MW by 2020; 2 GW by 2025; 4 GW by 2030

Cuba

Capacity (not specified)

2.1 GW of biomass, wind, solar and hydropower capacity by 2030

Egypt

Hydropower

2.8 GW by 2020

Solar PV

300 MW small-scale (<500 kW) solar PV systems installed 2015-2017;
2 GW medium and large-size solar PV (max. 50 MW) installed 2015-2017
[220 MW by 2020; 700 MW by 2027]

CSP

1.1 GW by 2020; 2.8 GW by 2030

Wind power

2 GW installed 2015-2017, 7.2 GW by 2020

Ethiopia

Bio-power from bagasse

103.5 MW (no date)

Geothermal power

450 MW by 2018; 1 GW by 2030

Hydropower

22 GW by 2030

Wind power

7 GW by 2030 [770 MW by 2014]

Finland

Bio-power

13.2 GW by 2020

Hydropower

14.6 GW by 2020

Wind power

884 MW by 2020

France

Hydropower

25.8-26.05 GW by 2030

Ocean power

380 MW by 2020

Solar

10.2 GW by 2018; 18.2-20.2 GW by 2023; [8 GW by 2020]

Wind power

21.8-26 GW by 2023

Wind power (onshore)

19 GW by 2020

Wind power (offshore)

6 GW by 2020

Germany

Bio-power

100 MW added per year

Solar PV

2.5 GW added per year

Wind power (onshore)

2.5 GW added per year

Wind power (offshore)

6.5 GW added by 2020

Table R19. Targets for Renewable Power Installed Capacity and/or Generation (continued)

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Technology

Target

Greece

Solar PV

2.2 GW by 2030

Grenada

Geothermal power

15 MW (no date)

Solar power

10 MW (no date)

Wind power

2 MW (no date)

India

Capacity (not specified)

175 GW by 2022

Bio-power

10 GW by 2022

Hydropower (small-scale)1

5 GW by 2022

Solar PV

20 million solar lighting systems added 2010-2022

Solar PV and CSP

100 GW by 2022

Wind power

60 GW by 2022

Andhra Pradesh

Solar PV

5,000 MW added between 2015 and 2020

Jharkhand

Solar PV

2,650 MW installed by 2019-2020

Indonesia

Geothermal power

12.6 GW by 2025

Hydropower

2 GW by 2025, including 0.43 GW micro-hydropower

Pumped storage2

3 GW by 2025

Solar power

5 GW by 2020 [156.8 MW of solar PV by 2025]

Wind power

100 MW by 2025

Iran

Solar power and wind power

5 GW by 2020

Iraq

Solar PV

240 MW by 2016

CSP

80 MW by 2016

Wind power

80 MW by 2016

Italy

Bio-power

19,780 GWh per year generation from 2.8 GW capacity by 2020

Geothermal power

6,759 GWh per year of generation from 920 MW capacity by 2020

Hydropower

42,000 GWh per year generation from 17.8 GW capacity by 2020

Solar PV

23 GW by 2017

Wind power (onshore)

18,000 GWh per year generation and 12 GW capacity by 2020

Wind power (offshore)

2,000 GWh per year generation and 680 MW capacity by 2020

Japan

Ocean power (wave and tidal)

1.5 GW by 2030

Jordan

Capacity (not specified)

1.8 GW by 2020

Solar power

1 GW by 2020 [600 MW by 2020]

Wind power

1.2 GW by 2020

Kazakhstan

Bio-power

15.05 MW at 3 bioelectric stations by 2020

Hydropower

539 MW at 41 hydroelectric power stations by 2020

Solar power

713.5 MW at 28 solar electric plants by 2020

Wind power

1,787 MW at 34 wind power stations by 2020

Kenya

Geothermal power

1.9 GW by 2016; 5 GW by 2030

Hydropower

794 MW by 2016

Solar PV

423 MW by 2016

Wind power

635 MW by 2016

Korea,
Republic of

Generation (not specified)

13,016 GWh per year (2.9% of total generation) by 2015; 21,977 GWh per year (4.7%) by 2020; 39,517 GWh per year (7.7%) by 2030 supplied by a mix of renewable technologies, including:

Bio-power from solid biomass

2,628 GWh per year by 2030

Bio-power from biogas

161 GWh per year by 2030

Bio-power from landfill gas

1,340 GWh per year by 2030

Table R19. Targets for Renewable Power Installed Capacity and/or Generation (continued)

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Technology

Target

Korea,

Republic of

(continued)

Geothermal power

2,046 GWh per year by 2030

Hydropower (large-scale)

3,860 GWh per year by 2030

Hydropower (small-scale)

1,926 GWh per year by 2030

Ocean power

6,159 GWh per year by 2030

Solar PV

2,046 GWh per year by 2030

CSP

1,971 GWh per year by 2030

Wind power

900 MW by 2016; 1.5 GW by 2019; 16,619 GWh per year by 2030

Wind power (offshore)

2.5 GW by 2019

Kuwait

Solar PV

3.5 GW by 2030

CSP

1.1 GW by 2030

Wind power

3.1 GW by 2030

Lebanon

Wind power

400-500 MW by 2020

Lesotho

Capacity (not specified)

260 MW by 2030

Libya

Solar PV

344 MW by 2020; 844 MW by 2025

CSP

125 MW by 2020; 375 MW by 2025

Wind power

600 MW by 2020; 1 GW by 2025

Macedonia, FYR of

Bio-power from solid biomass

50 GWh by 2020

Bio-power from biogas

20 GWh by 2020

Hydropower (small-scale)

216 GWh by 2020

Solar PV

14 GWh by 2020

Wind power

300 GWh by 2020

Malaysia

Generation (not specified)

2.1 GW (excluding large-scale hydropower), 11.2 TWh per year,
or 10% of national supply (no date given);
11% by 2020; 14% by 2030; 36% by 2050

Solar power

1 GW of capacity added by 2020

Mexico

Capacity

20 GW by 2030, of which:

Wind power

10 GW by 2030

Morocco

Hydropower

2 GW by 2020

Solar PV and CSP

2 GW by 2020

Wind power

2 GW by 2020

Mozambique

Bio-digesters for biogas

1,000 systems installed (no date)

Hydropower, solar PV, wind power

2 GW each (no date)

Solar PV

82,000 solar home systems installed (no date)

Wind turbines for water pumping

3,000 stations installed (no date)

“Renewable energy-based productive systems”

5,000 installed (no date)

Myanmar

Hydropower

9.4 GW by 2030

Nigeria

Bio-power

400 MW by 2025

Hydropower (small-scale)3

2 GW by 2025

Solar PV (large-scale, >1 MW)

500 MW by 2025

CSP

5 MW by 2025

Wind power

40 MW by 2025

Norway

Generation (not specified)

30 TWh per year by 2016

Generation (not specified)

26.4 TWh common electricity certificate market with Sweden
by 2020

Table R19. Targets for Renewable Power Installed Capacity and/or Generation (continued)

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Technology

Target

Palestine,
State of

Bio-power

21 MW by 2020

Solar PV

45 MW by 2020

CSP

20 MW by 2020

Wind power

44 MW by 2020

Philippines

Capacity (not specified)

Triple the 2010 capacity by 2030

Bio-power

277 MW added 2010-2030

Geothermal power

1.5 GW added 2010-2030

Hydropower

5,398 MW added 2010-2030

Ocean power

75 MW added 2010-2030

Solar PV

284 MW added 2010-2030

Wind power

2.3 GW added 2010-2030

Poland

Wind power (offshore)

1 GW by 2020

Portugal

Capacity (not specified)

15.8 GW by 2020

Bio-power from solid biomass

769 MW by 2020

Bio-power from biogas

59 MW by 2020

Geothermal power

29 MW by 2020

Hydropower (small-scale)

400 MW by 2020

Ocean power (wave)

6 MW by 2020

Solar PV

670 MW by 2020

Concentrating solar photovoltaics (CPV)

50 MW by 2020

Wind power

5.3 GW onshore by 2020; 27 MW offshore by 2020

Russian Federation

Capacity (not specified)4

5.87 GW installed capacity commissioned by 2020

Rwanda

Bio-power from biogas

300 MW by 2017

Geothermal power

310 MW by 2017

Hydropower

340 MW by 2017

Capacity (not specified; off-grid)

5 MW by 2017

Saudi Arabia

Capacity (not specified)

9.5 GW by 2023; 54 GW by 2040

Solar PV and CSP

41 GW by 2040 (25 GW CSP, 16 GW PV)

Geothermal, bio-power (waste-to-energy)5, wind power

13 GW combined by 2040

Serbia

Solar PV

150 MW by 2017

Wind power

1.4 GW (no date)

Sierra Leone

Capacity (not specified)

1 GW (no date)

Singapore

Solar PV

350 MW by 2020

Solomon Islands

Geothermal power

20-40 MW (no date)

Hydropower

3.77 MW (no date)

Solar power

3.2 MW (no date)

South Africa

Capacity (not specified)

17.8 GW by 2030; 42% of new generation capacity installed 2010-2030

Spain

Bio-power from solid biomass

1.4 GW by 2020

Bio-power from organic MSW5

200 MW by 2020

Bio-power from biogas

400 MW by 2020

Geothermal power

50 MW by 2020

Hydropower

13.9 GW by 2020

Table R19. Targets for Renewable Power Installed Capacity and/or Generation (continued)

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Technology

Target

Spain

(continued)

Pumped storage2

8.8 GW by 2020

Ocean power

100 MW by 2020

Solar PV

7.3 GW by 2020

CSP

4.8 GW by 2020

Wind power (onshore)

35 GW by 2020

Wind power (offshore)

750 MW by 2020

Sudan

Bio-power from solid biomass

54 MW by 2031

Bio-power from biogas

68 MW by 2031

Hydropower

63 MW by 2031

Solar PV

667 MW by 2031

CSP

50 MW by 2031

Wind power

680 MW by 2031

Sweden

Generation (not specified)

25 TWh more renewable electricity annually by 2020 (base year 2002)

Generation (not specified)

26.4 TWh common electricity certificate market with Norway by 2020

Switzerland

Generation (not specified)

12 TWh per year by 2035; 24.2 TWh per year by 2050

Hydropower

43 TWh per year by 2035

Syria

Bio-power

140 MW by 2020; 260 MW by 2025; 400 MW by 2030

Solar PV

380 MW by 2020; 1.1 GW by 2025; 1.8 GW by 2030

CSP

50 MW by 2025

Wind power

1 GW by 2020; 1.5 GW by 2025; 2 GW by 2030

Tajikistan

Hydropower (small-scale)

100 MW by 2020

Thailand

Bio-power from solid biomass

4.8 GW by 2021

Bio-power from biogas

600 MW by 2021

Bio-power from organic MSW5

400 MW by 2021

Geothermal power

1 MW by 2021

Hydropower

6.1 GW by 2021

Ocean power (wave and tidal)

2 MW by 2021

Solar PV

1.7 GW by 2016; 3 GW by 2021; 6 GW by 2036

Wind power

1.8 GW by 2021

Trinidad and Tobago

Wind power

100 MW (no date given)

Tunisia

Capacity (not specified)

1 GW (16% of capacity) by 2016; 4.6 GW (40% of capacity) by 2030

Bio-power from solid biomass

40 MW by 2016; 300 MW by 2030

Solar power

10 GW by 2030

Wind power

16 GW by 2030

Turkey

Bio-power from solid biomass

1 GW by 2023

Geothermal power

1 GW by 2023

Hydropower

34 GW by 2023

Solar PV

5 GW by 2023

Wind power

20 GW by 2023

Uganda

Bio-power from organic MSW5

30 MW by 2017

Geothermal power

45 MW by 2017

Hydropower (large-scale)

1.2 GW by 2017

Hydropower (mini- and micro-scale)

85 MW by 2017

Solar PV (solar home systems)

700 kW by 2017

Table R19. Targets for Renewable Power Installed Capacity and/or Generation (continued)

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Technology

Target

United Kingdom

Wind power (offshore)

39 GW by 2030

United States

No national target

Iowa

Capacity (not specified)

105 MW of generating capacity for IOUs6

Massachusetts

Wind (offshore)

1.6 GW by 2027

Texas

Capacity (not specified)

5,880 MW

Venezuela

Capacity (not specified)

613 MW new capacity installed 2013-2019, including:

Wind power

500 MW new capacity installed 2013-2019

Vietnam

Hydropower

21.6 GW by 2020; 24.6 GW by 2025; 27.8 GW by 2030

Wind power

800 MW by 2020; 2 GW by 2025; 6 GW by 2030

Solar power

850 MW by 2020; 4 GW by 2025; 12 GW by 2030

Yemen

Bio-power

6 MW by 2025

Geothermal power

200 MW by 2025

Solar PV

4 MW by 2025

CSP

100 MW by 2025

Wind power

400 MW by 2025

1 India does not classify hydropower installations larger than 25 MW as renewable energy sources. Therefore, national targets and data for India do not include hydropower facilities >25 MW.

2 Pumped storage plants are not energy sources but a means of energy storage. As such, they involve conversion losses and are powered by renewable or non-renewable electricity. Pumped storage is included here because it can play an important role as balancing power, in particular for variable renewable resources.

3 Nigeria’s target excludes hydropower plants >30 MW.

4 The Russian Federation’s targets exclude hydropower plants >25 MW.

5 It is not always possible to determine whether municipal solid waste (MSW) data include non-organic waste (plastics, metal, etc.) or only the organic biomass share.

6 Investor-owned utilities (IOUs) are those operating under private control rather than government or co-operative operation.

Note: All capacity targets are for cumulative capacity unless otherwise noted. Targets are rounded to the nearest tenth decimal. Renewable energy targets are not standardised across countries; therefore, the table presents a variety of targets for the purpose of general comparison. Countries on this list also may have primary/final energy, electricity, heating/cooling or transport targets ( see Tables R10, R12–R22).

Source: See endnote 19 for this section.

Table R20. Cumulative Number1 of Countries/States/Provinces Enacting Feed-in Policies, and 2016 Revisions

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016.

YEAR

CUMULATIVE #1

COUNTRIES/STATES/PROVINCES added that year

1978

1

United States2

1988

2

Portugal

1990

3

Germany

1991

4

Switzerland

1992

5

Italy

1993

7

Denmark; India

1994

10

Luxembourg; Spain; Greece

1997

11

Sri Lanka

1998

12

Sweden

1999

14

Portugal; Norway; Slovenia

2000

14

[None identified]

2001

17

Armenia; France; Latvia

2002

23

Algeria; Austria; Brazil; Czech Republic; Indonesia; Lithuania

2003

29

Cyprus; Estonia; Hungary; Slovak Republic; Republic of Korea; Maharashtra (India)

2004

34

Israel; Nicaragua; Prince Edward Island (Canada); Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh (India)

2005

41

China; Ecuador; Ireland; Turkey; Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand (India)

2006

46

Argentina; Pakistan; Thailand; Ontario (Canada); Kerala (India)

2007

55

Albania; Bulgaria; Croatia; Dominican Republic; Finland; FYR of Macedonia; Moldova; Mongolia; South Australia (Australia)

2008

70

Iran; Kenya; Liechtenstein; Philippines; San Marino; Tanzania; Queensland (Australia); Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal (India); California (United States)

2009

81

Japan; Serbia; South Africa; Ukraine; Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Victoria (Australia); Taipei (China); Hawaii, Oregon and Vermont (United States)

2010

87

Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Malaysia; Malta; Mauritius; United Kingdom

2011

94

Ghana; Montenegro; Netherlands; Syria; Vietnam; Nova Scotia (Canada); Rhode Island (United States)

2012

99

Jordan; Nigeria; State of Palestine; Rwanda; Uganda

2013

101

Kazakhstan; Pakistan

2014

104

Egypt; Vanuatu; Virgin Islands (United States)

2015

104

[None identified]

2016

104

Czech Republic (reinstated)

1 “Cumulative number” refers to number of jurisdictions that had enacted feed-in policies as of the given year.

2 The US PURPA policy (1978) is an early version of the FIT, which has since evolved.

3 “Total existing” excludes eight countries that are known to have subsequently discontinued policies (Brazil, Republic of Korea, Mauritius, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Sweden and the United States) and adds nine countries (Andorra, Honduras, Maldives, Panama, Peru, Poland, Russian Federation, Senegal and Tajikistan) and five Indian states (Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand and Orissa) that are believed to have FITs but with an unknown year of enactment.

Source: See endnote 20 for this section.

Table R20. Cumulative Number1 of Countries/States/Provinces Enacting Feed-in Policies, and 2016 Revisions (continued)

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

2016 FIT Policy Adjustments

Australia – Queensland

Increased size of solar power systems eligible for FIT from 5 kW to 30 kW

Canada – Ontario

Opened fifth round of FIT to new applications

China

Solar PV FIT rate reduced 13-19% (regionally dependent); FIT for distributed solar PV and offshore wind unchanged; onshore wind FIT set to decrease by 15% from 2018

Czech Republic

FIT reinstated

Denmark

Introduced FIT for small-scale wind power installations

Egypt

Solar PV (500 kW to 20 MW) reduced from USD 0.136 per kWh to USD 0.078 per kWh; solar PV (20 MW to 50 MW) reduced from USD 0.1434 per kWh to USD 0.084 per kWh; wind power reduced from USD 0.0957–0.1148 per kWh to USD 0.04 per kWh

France

FIT restricted to installations of less than 500 kW

Germany

FIT restricted to installations of less than 750 kW, 150 kW limit for bio-power installations

Greece

FIT expanded to allow small-scale projects and installations on non-interconnected islands to receive support

India – Tamil Nadu

Solar PV FIT reduced 27%

Indonesia

Solar FIT increased 70%

Japan

Solar FIT reduced 11%

Kenya

Proposed tenders to replace FIT

Pakistan

Solar FIT reduced 36%

Philippines

Solar power FIT reduced 10% for second wave of FIT

Slovenia

FIT restricted to installations of less than 500 kW

Ukraine

Rates reduced from EUR 0.16 per kWh to EUR 0.15 per kWh for commercial solar power installations greater than 10 MW

United Kingdom

All FIT rates reduced 65%

1 “Cumulative number” refers to number of jurisdictions that had enacted feed-in policies as of the given year.

Source: See endnote 20 for this section.

Table R21. Cumulative Number1 of Countries/States/Provinces Enacting RPS/Quota Policies, and 2016 Revisions

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016.

YEAR

CUMULATIVE #1

COUNTRIES/STATES/PROVINCES added that year

1983

1

Iowa (United States)

1994

2

Minnesota (United States)

1996

3

Arizona (United States)

1997

6

Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada (United States)

1998

9

Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin (United States)

1999

12

Italy; New Jersey, Texas (United States)

2000

13

New Mexico (United States)

2001

15

Australia; Flanders (Belgium)

2002

18

United Kingdom; Wallonia (Belgium); California (United States)

2003

22

Japan; Portugal; Sweden; Maharashtra (India)

2004

35

Poland; Nova Scotia, Ontario and Prince Edward Island (Canada); Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa (India); Colorado, Hawaii, Maryland, New York, Rhode Island (United States)

2005

39

Gujarat (India); Delaware, District of Columbia, Montana (United States)

2006

40

Washington State (United States)

2007

46

China; Illinois, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Northern Mariana Islands, Oregon (United States)

2008

53

Chile; India; Philippines; Romania; Michigan, Missouri, Ohio (United States)

2009

54

Kansas (United States)

2010

57

Republic of Korea; British Columbia (Canada); Puerto Rico (United States)

2011

59

Albania; Israel

2012

60

Norway

2013

60

[None identified]

2014

60

[None identified]

2015

62

Vermont, US Virgin Islands (United States)

2016

62

[None identified]

1 “Cumulative number” refers to the number of jurisdictions that had enacted RPS/quota policies as of the given year. Jurisdictions are listed under the year of first policy enactment. Many policies shown have been revised or renewed in subsequent years, and some policies shown may have been repealed or lapsed.

2 “Total existing” adds 40 jurisdictions believed to have RPS/Quota policies but whose year of enactment is not known (Belarus, Ghana, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Malaysia, Palau, Peru, Senegal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, United Arab Emirates, the Indian states of Arunchal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal and the Indian Union Territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Lakshadweep and Puducherry) and excludes Italy, which phased out its RPS in 2012, and the US state of Kansas which downgraded its RPS to a voluntary goal in 2015. In the United States, there are nine additional states and territories with policy goals that are not legally binding RPS policies (Guam, Indiana, Kansas, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah and Virginia). West Virginia’s non-binding goal was repealed in 2015. Three additional Canadian provinces also have non-binding policy goals (Alberta, Manitoba and Québec).

Source: See endnote 21 for this section.

Table R22. Renewable Energy Auctions Held in 2016 by Country/State/Province

Country

Technology

Description

Argentina

Bio-power (biomass)

15 MW awarded in 2016

Bio-power (biogas)

9 MW awarded in 2016

Small-scale hydropower

11 MW awarded in 2016

Solar PV

916 MW awarded in 2016

Wind power

1.46 GW awarded in 2016

Chile

Non-technology-specific

12,430 GWh offered in 2016

China

Non-technology-specific

5.5 GW of renewable energy capacity in 2016

El Salvador

Solar PV

100 MW

Wind power

50 MW

France

Solar PV

3 GW of solar through six 500 MW application rounds to be held until 2019

Germany

Solar PV

400 MW cumulative capacity offered in 2016

Greece

Solar PV

40 MW of small-scale projects

India

Solar PV

1 GW

Indonesia

Geothermal power

680 MW

Iraq

Solar PV

50 MW

Israel

Solar PV

At least 1 GW, as well as 500 MW in the Negev desert and 40 MW in Ashalim

Jordan

Solar power

200 MW offered in 2016

Wind power

100 MW offered in 2016

Malawi

Solar PV

4 solar PV plants with a cumulative capacity of 70 MW

Mexico

Solar and wind power

8,909 GWh awarded in 2016

Morocco

Non-technology-specific

1 GW of large-scale renewable energy projects

Netherlands

Solar PV

179 MW awarded in spring Simulation of Sustainable Energy Production (SDE+) scheme, 2.5 GW bids in fall SDE+ scheme

Wind power (offshore)

700 MW of capacity awarded in July 2016; 680 MW of capacity awarded in December 2016

Palestine, State of

Solar PV

100 MW offered in 2016

Poland

Solar PV

100 MW of small-scale projects

Saudi Arabia

Solar PV

100 MW offered in 2016

Suriname

Solar PV

500 kW solar PV plant with battery storage awarded in 2016

Turkey

Solar PV

1 GW offered in 2016

Zambia

Solar PV

100 MW offered in 2016

Country

State/Province

Technology

Description

Australia

New South Wales

Renewable energy

173 GWh per year

Canada

Alberta

Renewable energy

400 MW

India

Tamil Nadu

Solar PV

500 MW

United Arab Emirates

Dubai

Solar PV

800 MW

Abu Dhabi

Solar PV

350 MW

1 It is not always possible to determine whether municipal solid waste (MSW) data include non-organic waste (plastics, metal, etc.) or only the organic biomass share.

Note: Table R22 provides an overview of identified renewable energy tenders in 2016 and likely does not constitute a comprehensive picture of all capacity offered through tenders during the year.

Source: See endnote 22 for this section.

Table R23. Heating and Cooling from Renewable Sources, Targets and 2015 Shares

Country

SHARE (2015)

Target

Austria

32%

32.6% by 2020

Belgium

7.6%

11.9% by 2020

Bhutan

Solar thermal: 3 MW equivalent by 2025

Bulgaria

28.6%

24% renewables in total heating and cooling by 2020

China

Solar thermal: 800 m2 by 2020

Croatia

38.6%

19.6% by 2020

Cyprus

22.5%

23.5% by 2020

Czech Republic

19.8%

14.1% by 2020

Denmark

39.6%

39.8% by 2020

Estonia

49.6%

38% by 2020

Finland

52.8%

47% by 2020

France

19.8%

38% by 2030

Germany

12.9%

14% by 2020

Greece

25.9%

20% by 2020

Hungary

21.3%

18.9% by 2020

India

Solar water heating: 5.6 GWth (8 million m2) of new capacity to be added 2012-2017

Ireland

6.4%

15% by 2020

Italy

19.2%

17.1% by 2020

Bioenergy: 5,670 ktoe for heating and cooling by 2020

Geothermal: 300 ktoe for heating and cooling by 2020

Solar water and space heating: 1,586 ktoe by 2020

Jordan

Solar water heating: systems for 30% of households by 2020

Kenya

Solar water heating: 60% of annual demand for buildings that use over 100 litres of hot water per day (no date)

Kosovo1

45.65% by 2020

Latvia

51.8%

53.4% by 2020

Lebanon

15% renewables in gross final consumption in power and heating by 2030

Libya

Solar water heating: 80 MWth by 2015; 250 MWth by 2020

Lithuania

46.1%

39% by 2020

Luxembourg

6.9%

8.5% renewables in gross final consumption in heating and cooling by 2020

1 Kosovo is not a member of the United Nations.

2 It is not always possible to determine whether municipal solid waste (MSW) data include non-organic waste (plastics, metal, etc.) or only the organic biomass share.

Note: Targets refer to share of renewable heating and cooling in total energy supply unless otherwise noted. Historical targets have been added as they are identified by REN21. Only bolded targets are new/revised in 2016. A number of nations have already exceeded their renewable energy targets. In many of these cases, targets serve as a floor setting the minimum share of renewable heat for the country. Table R23 includes targets established under EU National Renewable Energy Action Plans. Because heating and cooling targets are shares and are not standardised across countries, the table presents a variety of targets for the purpose of general comparison.

Source: See endnote 23 for this section.

Country

SHARE (2015)

Target

Macedonia, FYR of

11% by 2020

Malawi

Solar water heating: produce 2,000 solar water heaters (no date); increase total installed to 20,000 by 2030

Malta

14.1%

6.2% by 2020

Mexico

Solar water heating: Install 18.2 million m2 of collectors by 2027

Moldova

27% by 2020

Montenegro

68.6%

38.2% by 2020

Morocco

Solar water heating: 1.2 GWth (1.7 million m2) by 2020

Mozambique

Solar water and space heating: 100,000 systems installed in rural areas (no date)

Netherlands

5.5%

8.7% by 2020

Poland

14.3%

17% by 2020

Portugal

33.4%

30.6% by 2020

Romania

25.9%

22% by 2020

Serbia

30% by 2020

Sierra Leone

Solar water heating: 2% penetration in hotels, guest houses and restaurants by 2020; 5% by 2030

Solar water heating: 1% penetration in the residential sector by 2030

Slovak Republic

10.8%

14.6% by 2020

Slovenia

34.1%

30.8% by 2020

Spain

16.8%

18.9% by 2020

Bioenergy: 4,653 ktoe by 2020

Geothermal: 9.5 ktoe by 2020

Heat pumps: 50.8 ktoe by 2020

Solar water and space heating: 644 ktoe by 2020

Sweden

69.6%

62.1% by 2020

Thailand

Bioenergy: 8,200 ktoe by 2022

Biogas: 1,000 ktoe by 2022

Organic MSW2: 35 ktoe by 2022

Solar water heating: 300,000 systems in operation and 100 ktoe by 2022

Uganda

Solar water heating: 21 MWth (30,000 m2) by 2017

Ukraine

12.4% by 2020

United Kingdom

5.5%

12% by 2020

Table R24. Transportation Energy from Renewable Sources, Targets and 2015 Shares

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted, and text in italics indicates policies adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Share

Target

Albania

0%

10% by 2020

Austria

11%

11.4% by 2020

Belgium

Wallonia

3.8%

10% by 2020

10.14% by 2020

Bulgaria

6.5%

11% by 2020

Croatia

3.5%

10% by 2020

Cyprus

2.5%

4.9% by 2020

Czech Republic

6.5%

10.8% by 2020

Denmark

6.7%

10% by 2020

Estonia

0.4%

10% by 2020

Finland

22%

30% biofuel blending and 40% renewable transport fuel use by 2030 [20% by 2020]

France

8.5%

15% by 2020

Germany

6.8%

20% by 2020

Greece

1.4%

10.1% by 2020

Hungary

6.2%

10% by 2020

Iceland

5.7%

10% by 2020

Ireland

6.5%

10% by 2020

Italy

6.4%

10.1% (2,899 ktoe) by 2020

Latvia

3.9%

10% by 2020

Liberia

5% palm oil blends in transport fuel by 2030

Lithuania

4.6%

10% by 2020

Luxembourg

6.5%

10% by 2020

Malta

4.7%

10.7% by 2020

Macedonia, FYR of

2% by 2020

Moldova

20% by 2020

Montenegro

10.2% by 2020

Netherlands

5.3%

10% by 2020

1 ETBE is a form of biofuel produced from ethanol and isobutylene.

Note: Targets refer to share of renewable transport in total energy supply unless otherwise noted. Historical targets have been added as they are identified by REN21. Only bolded targets are new/revised in 2016. A number of nations have already exceeded their renewable energy targets. In many of these cases, targets serve as a floor setting the minimum share of renewable energy for the country. Panama has an additional target for 30% of new vehicle purchases for public fleets to be flex-fuel (no date).

Source: See endnote 24 for this section.

Country

Share

Target

Norway

8.9%

20% by 2020 [10% by 2020]

Poland

6.4%

20% by 2020

Portugal

7.4%

10% by 2020

Qatar

10% by 2020

Romania

5.5%

10% by 2020

Serbia

10% by 2020

Slovak Republic

8.5%

10% by 2020

Slovenia

2.2%

10.5% by 2020

Spain

1.7%

11.3% from biodiesel by 2020

2,313 ktoe ethanol/bio-ETBE1 by 2020

4.7 GWh per year electricity in transport by 2020 (501 ktoe from renewable sources by 2020)

Sri Lanka

20% from biofuels by 2020

Sweden

24%

Vehicle fleet independent from fossil fuels by 2030

Thailand

9 million litres per day ethanol consumption by 2022

6 million litres per day biodiesel consumption by 2022

25 million litres per day advanced biofuels production by 2022

Uganda

2,200 million litres per year biofuels consumption by 2017

Ukraine

10% by 2020

United Kingdom

4.4%

10.3% by 2020

Vietnam

5% of transport petroleum energy demand by 2025

Table R25. National and State/Provincial Biofuel Blend Mandates, 2016

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, brackets '[]' indicate previous mandates where new mandates were enacted, and text in italics indicates mandates adopted at the state/provincial level.

Country

Mandate

Angola

E10

Argentina

E10 [E5] and B10

Australia

New South Wales

Queensland

[no national mandate]

E6 and B2

E3 by July 2017; E4 by July 2018 and B0.5

Belgium

E4 and B4

Brazil

E27 and B8 by 2017; B9 by 2018; B10 by 2019

Canada

Alberta

British Columbia

Manitoba

Ontario

Saskatchewan

E5 and B2

E5 and B2

E5 and B4

E8.5 and B2

E5, B2 and B3 by 2016; B4 by 2017

E7.5 and B2

China1

E10 in nine provinces, B1 in Taipei

Colombia

E8 and B10

Costa Rica

E7 and B20

Ecuador

B5 and E10, E5 in 2016

Ethiopia

E10

Guatemala

E5

India

E22.5 and B15 [E10]

Indonesia

E3, B20 [B5]

Italy

0.6% advanced biofuels blend by 2018; 1% by 2022

Jamaica

E10

Korea, Republic of

B2.5; B3 by 2018

Malawi

E10

Malaysia

E10 and B10

Mexico

E5.8

Mozambique

E15 in 2016-20; E20 from 2021

Norway

B3.5

Panama

E10 [E7]

Paraguay

E25 and B1

1 Chinese provincial mandates include Anhui, Heilongjian, Henan, Jilin and Liaoning.

2 Original target(s) set in gallons and converted to litres for consistency.

Note: ‘E’ refers to bioethanol and ‘B’ refers to biodiesel. Chile has targets of E5 and B5 but has no current blending mandate. The Dominican Republic has targets of B2 and E15 for 2015 but has no current blending mandate. Fiji approved voluntary B5 and E10 blending in 2011 with a mandate expected. The Kenyan city of Kisumu has an E10 mandate. Table R25 lists only biofuel blend mandates; transport and biofuel targets can be found in Table R24.

Source: See endnote 25 for this section.

Country

Mandate

Peru

E7.8 and B2

Philippines

E10 and B2

South Africa

E2 and B5 (targets came into force in 2015)

Sudan

E5

Thailand

E5 and B7

Turkey

E2

Ukraine

E5; E7 by 2017

United States

Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) 2016 standards: 68.6 billion litres total renewable fuels, including 871 million litres cellulosic biofuel, 7.2 billion litres biodiesel, 13.7 billion litres advanced biofuel; 2017 standards: 73 billion litres renewable fuels, including 1.2 billion litres cellulosic biofuel, 7.8 billion litres biomass-based diesel, 16.2 billion litres advanced biofuel; 7.9 billion litres biomass-based diesel fuel in 20182

Louisiana

E2 and B2

Massachusetts

B5

Minnesota

E20 and B10

Hawaii, Missouri and Montana

E10

New Mexico

B5

Oregon

E10 and B5

Pennsylvania

B2 one year after 200 million gallons, and B20 one year after 1.5 billion litres (400 million gallons)2

Washington

E2 and B2, increasing to B5 180 days after in-state feedstock, and oil-seed crushing capacity can meet 3% requirement

Uruguay

E5 and B5

Vietnam

E5

Zimbabwe

E15 [E5]

Table R26. City and Local Renewable Energy Targets: Selected Examples

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, and brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted.

Targets for 100% of Total Energy or Electricity from Renewables

Target date for 100% total energy

Target date for 100% electricity

Australian Capital Territory, Australia

2020

Boulder, Colorado, United States

2030

Burlington, Vermont, United States

Achieved in 2014

Byron Shire County, Australia

2025

Coffs Harbour, Australia

2030

Copenhagen, Denmark

2050

Frankfurt, Germany

2050

Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

2040

Greensburg, Kansas, United States

Achieved in 2015

Hamburg, Germany

2050

Jeju Self Governing Province, Republic of Korea

2030

Lancaster, California, United States

2020

Malmö, Sweden

2030

Munich, Germany

2025

Osnabrueck, Germany

2030

Oxford County, Australia

2050

Palo Alto, California, United States

[no date given]

Rochester, Minnesota, United States

2031

Salt Lake City, Utah, United States

2032

San Diego, California, United States

2035

San Francisco, California, United States

2020

San Jose, California, United States

2022

Seattle, Washington, United States

[no date given]

Skellefteå, Sweden

2020

Sønderborg, Denmark

2029

St. Petersburg, Florida, United States

[no date given]

Sydney, Australia

2030

Ulm, Germany

2025

Uralla, Australia

[no date given]

Vancouver, Canada

2050

Växjö, Sweden

2030

Targets for Renewable Share of Total Energy, All Consumers

Austin, Texas, United States

65% by 2025

Calgary, Alberta, Canada

30% by 2036

Cape Town, South Africa

Howrah, India

10% by 2018

Nagano Prefecture, Japan

70% by 2050

Oaxaca, Mexico

5% by 2017

Paris, France

25% by 2020

Skellefteå, Sweden

Net exporter of biomass, hydro or wind energy by 2020

Targets for Renewable Share of Electricity, All Consumers

Amsterdam, Netherlands

25% by 2025; 50% by 2040

Austin, Texas, United States

35% by 2020

Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

90% by 2020

Cape Town, South Africa

20% by 2020 [15% by 2020]

Nagano Prefecture, Japan

10% by 2020; 20% by 2030; 30% by 2050

Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa

10% by 2020

Taipei City, Taipei, China

12% by 2020

Tokyo, Japan

30% by 2030 [24% by 2024]

Wellington, New Zealand

78-90% by 2020

Table R26. City and Local Renewable Energy Targets: Selected Examples (continued)

Note: Text in bold indicates new/revised in 2016, and brackets '[]' indicate previous targets where new targets were enacted.

Target for Renewable Electric Capacity or Generation

Adelaide, Australia

2 MW of solar PV on residential and commercial buildings by 2020

Esklistuna, Sweden

48 GWh from wind power, 9.5 GWh from solar PV by 2020

Gothenburg, Sweden

500 GWh by 2030

Los Angeles, California, United States

1.3 GW of solar PV by 2020

New York, New York, United States

1 GW solar power and 100 MWh energy storage by 2020 [350 MW of solar PV by 2024]

San Francisco, California, United States

100% of peak demand (950 MW) by 2020

Heat-Related Mandates and Targets

Amsterdam, Netherlands

District heating for at least 200,000 houses by 2040 (using biogas, woody biomass and waste heat)

Chandigarh, India

Mandatory use of solar water heating in industry, hotels, hospitals, prisons, canteens, housing complexes, and government and residential buildings (as of 2013)

Helsingborg, Sweden

100% renewable energy district heating (community-scale) by 2035

Loures, Portugal

Solar thermal systems mandated as of 2013 in all sports facilities and schools that have good sun exposure

Munich, Germany

80% reduction of heat demand by 2058 (base 2009) through passive solar design (includes heat, process heat and water heating)

Nantes, France

Extend the district heating system to source heat from biomass boilers for half of city inhabitants by 2017

New York, New York, United States

Biofuel blend in heating oil equivalent to 2% by 2016, 5% by 2017, 10% by 2025, and 20% by 2034

Oslo, Norway

Phase out fossil fuels and transition to electric heating in homes and offices by 20201

Osnabrück, Germany

100% renewable heat by 2050

Täby, Sweden

100% renewable heat in local government operations by 2020

Vienna, Austria

50% of total heat demand with solar thermal energy by 2050

Targets for Government Self-Generation/Own-Use Purchases of Renewable Energy

Belo Horizonte, Brazil

30% of electricity from solar PV by 2030

Calgary, Alberta, Canada

100% of government operations by 2025

Cockburn, Australia

20% of final energy in city buildings by 2020

Ghent, Belgium

50% of final energy by 2020

Hepburn Shire, Australia

100% of final energy in public buildings; 8% of electricity for public lighting

Kristianstad, Sweden

100% of final energy by 2020

Malmö, Sweden

100% of final energy by 2020

Portland, Oregon, United States

100% of final energy by 2030

Sydney, Australia

100% of electricity in buildings; 20% for street lamps

1 Norway's share of renewable electricity production to electricity consumption was 106% in 2015.

Note: Table R26 provides a sample of local renewable energy commitments worldwide. It does not aim to present a comprehensive picture of all municipal renewable energy goals.

Source: See endnote 26 for this section.

Endnotes

  1. Table R1 from the following sources: Bio-power based on 2015 forecast data in International Energy Agency (IEA), Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2015 (Paris: 2015), https://www.iea.org/bookshop/708-Medium-Term_Renewable_Energy_Market_Report_2015, except for the following: U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, “Office of Energy Projects Energy Infrastructure Update for December 2015,” http://www.ferc.gov/legal/staff-reports/2015/dec-infrastructure.pdf; Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL), “Banco de informacoes de geração”, http://www.aneel.gov.br/apl[cacoes/capacidadebrasil/combustivel.cfm, viewed 9 May 2016; China National Renewable Energy Centre, provided by Amanda Zhang, Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association, personal communication with REN21, 26 April 2016; Germany preliminary statistics from Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie, Erneuerbare Energien in Deutschland, Daten zur Entwicklung im Jahr 2015 (Berlin: February 2016), http://www.erneuerbare-energien.de/EE/Redaktion/DE/Downloads/erneuerbare-energien-in-zahlen-2015.pdf; UK Department of Energy & Climate Change, “Energy Trends Section 6 – Renewables” (London: March 2016), Table 6.1, https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/energy-trends-section-6-renewables, viewed 22 April 2016; Government of India, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), “Physical progress (achievements) – up to the month of December 2015,” http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/; MNRE, “Physical progress (achievements) – up to the month of December 2014,” http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/; Japan from Hironao Matsubara, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Japan, personal communication with REN21, 10 April 2016. Geothermal power from sources in endnote 1 in Geothermal Power and Heat section of Market and Industry Trends chapter. Hydropower from sources in endnote 5 of this section. Ocean power from International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Renewable Capacity Statistics 2017 (Abu Dhabi: April 2017), http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_RE_Capacity_Statistics_2017.pdf. Solar PV from sources in endnote 6 of this section. CSP from sources in endnote 7 of this section. Wind power from sources in endnote 9 of this section. Modern bio-heat based on the following: 297 GWth of bioenergy heat plant capacity installed as of 2008, from Helena Chum et al., “Bioenergy”, in Ottmar Edenhofer et al., eds., IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (Cambridge, UK and New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2011), http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srren/Chapter%202%20Bioenergy.pdf. Projections based on this number have been made for past GSRs. The combination of the Chum et al. data, plus past GSR projections, was used to estimate 2014 values of 305 GWth using a linear regression. The 2015 value presented here assumes a 3.5% growth rate from that 305 GWth value, based on the same percent increase for modern heat generation as presented in IEA, op. cit. this note, p. 242. Note that accurate heat data, including from bioenergy, are very difficult to obtain as most capacity installations and output are not metered. Even if plant capacities are known, there is often no knowledge of whether a 1 MWth plant, for example, is used for 80 hours or 8,000 hours per year. Geothermal heating capacity derived from John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd, “Direct utilization of geothermal energy: 2015 worldwide review”, in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2015 (Melbourne, Australia: 19–25 April 2015), and from Luis C.A. Gutiérrez-Negrín, International Geothermal Association and Mexican Geothermal Association, personal communication with REN21, March 2015. Capacity figure for 2015 is extrapolated from 2014 values (from sources) by weighted-average growth rate across eight categories of geothermal direct use: space heating, bathing and swimming, greenhouse heating, aquaculture, industrial use, snow melting and cooling, agricultural drying and other. The weighted-average five-year annual growth rate for capacity is 6.0% compared to 5.9% simple growth rate for the same period. The weighted-average five-year annual growth rate for utilisation is 3.5% compared to 3.3% simple growth rate for the same period. Solar collectors for water heating estimates based on Franz Mauthner, AEE – Institute for Sustainable Technologies (AEE INTEC), personal communication with REN21, April 2016, and on Franz Mauthner and Werner Weiss, Solar Heat Worldwide: Markets and Contribution to the Energy Supply 2014 (Gleisdorf, Austria: IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (IEA SHC), May 2016). See Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes for more details. Ethanol, biodiesel and HVO production data from sources in endnote 3 of this section.
  2. Table R2 from the following sources: For all global data, See endnote 1 for this section and other relevant reference tables. For more-specific data and sources, see Global Overview chapter and Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes. For sources for BRICS, EU and individual countries, See endnote for Figure 5 in Global Overview chapter. Per capita data based on capacity data provided in Reference Table R2 and on 2015 country population data from World Bank, “Population, total”, World Development Indicators, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL, updated 23 March 2017. 2
  3. Table R3 from the following sources: fuel ethanol data from F.O. Licht, “Fuel Ethanol: World Production by Country”, 2016; biodiesel and HVO data from F.O. Licht, “Biodiesel: World Production, by Country”, 2017, with permission from F.O. Licht/Licht Interactive Data. Preliminary 2015 data that appeared in GSR 2016 have been updated where possible.
  4. Table R4 from the following sources: See endnote 1 of Geothermal section in Market and Industry Trends chapter.
  5. Table R5 from the following sources: Global capacity estimate based on International Hydropower Association (IHA), 2017 Key Trends in Hydropower (London: April 2017), http://www.hydropower.org, on IHA, 2016 Hydropower Status Report (London: May 2016), http://www.hydropower.org, and on IHA, personal communication with REN21, March-April 2017. Total installed capacity is 1,246 GW (31.5 GW added), less 150 GW of pumped storage (6.4 GW added). Country data from the following sources: China: total capacity, capacity growth, utilisation and investment from China National Energy Administration (CNEA), summary of national electric industry statistics for 2016, http://www.nea.gov.cn/2017-01/16/c_135986964.htm; capacity additions in 2016, including pumped storage, from China Electricity Council, annual report on national power system, 25 January 2017, http://www.cec.org.cn/yaowenkuaidi/2017-01-25/164285.html; capacity, including pumped storage, at year-end 2015 from CNEA, 13th Five-Year-Plan for Hydro Power Development (Beijing: 29 November 2016), http://www.nea.gov.cn/135867663_14804701976251n.pdf. Brazil: 5,292 MW (5,002 MW large hydro, 203 MW small hydro and 87 MW very small hydro) added in 2016, from National Agency for Electrical Energy (ANEEL), “Resumo geral dos novos empreendimentos de geração”, http://www.aneel.gov.br/documents/655816/15224356/Resumo_Geral_das_Usinas_março_2017.zip, updated March 2017; large hydro capacity is listed as 91,499 MW at end-2016, small (1-30 MW) hydro as 4,941 MW and very small (less than 1 MW) hydro as 484 MW (compared to 398 MW in the previous year), for a total of 96,925 MW. United States: capacity from US Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Monthly, February 2017, Tables 6.2.B and 6.3, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly. Canada: data for 2015 only from Statistics Canada, “Table 127-0009 installed generating capacity, by class of electricity producer”, http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim. Russian Federation: capacity from System Operator of the Unified Energy System of Russia, Report on the Unified Energy System in 2016 (Moscow: January 2017), http://www.so-ups.ru/fileadmin/files/company/reports/disclosure/2017/ups_rep2016.pdf. India: installed capacity in 2016 (units larger than 25 MW) of 43,139 MW from Government of India, Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority, “All India installed capacity (in MW) of power stations”, December 2016, http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/installedcapacity/2016/installed_capacity-12.pdf; capacity additions in 2016 (greater than 25 MW) of 415 MW from idem, “Executive summary of the power sector (monthly)”, http://www.cea.nic.in/monthlyarchive.html; installed capacity in 2016 (<25 MW) of 4,325 MW from Government of India, MNRE, “Physical progress (achievements)”, http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/, viewed 19 January 2017; capacity additions in 2016 (<25 MW) of 148 MW based on difference of year-end 2016 figure (above) and year-end 2015 figure (4,177 MW) from MNRE, idem. Ecuador: capacity from IHA, op. cit. this note, all three references; Ethiopia: capacity from IHA, op. cit. this note, all three references; Vietnam: capacity from IHA, op. cit. this note, all three references; Peru: IHA, op. cit. this note, all three references, and from Government of Peru, Organismo Supervisor de la Inversión en Energía y Minería, inventory of hydropower projects, http://www.osinergmin.gob.pe/empresas/electricidad/proyectos/generacion, viewed May 2017.
  6. Table R6 from the following sources: Unless noted otherwise, data for end-2015 from IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (IEA PVPS), Trends in Photovoltaic Applications, 2016: Survey Report of Selected IEA Countries Between 1992 and 2015 (Paris: 2016), http://www.iea-pvps.org/fileadmin/dam/public/report/national/Trends_2016_-_mr.pdf, and from SolarPower Europe, Global Market Outlook for Solar Power 2016–2020 (Brussels: 2016). Data for 2016 from IEA PVPS, Snapshot of Global Photovoltaic Markets 2016 (Paris: April 2017), p. 4, http://www.iea-pvps.org/fileadmin/dam/public/report/statistics/IEA-PVPS_-__A_Snapshot_of_Global_PV_-_1992-2016.pdf, and from sources provided below. This report aims to provide all solar PV data in direct current (DC) units. Note that some countries (e.g., Canada, Chile, Japan since 2012, and Spain) report data officially in alternating current (AC); for consistency across countries, AC data were converted to DC by the relevant sources listed. Additional country sources include: China: Dazhong Xiao, “2016 photovoltaic power generation statistics”, National Energy Board, 4 February 2017, http://www.nea.gov.cn/2017-02/04/c_136030860.htm (using Google Translate). United States: GTM Research, personal communication with REN21, 2 May 2017, and GTM Research, cited in US Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), “Solar Market Insight Report 2016 Year in Review”, http://www.seia.org/research-resources/solar-market-insight-report-2016-year-review, viewed 2 May 2017. Japan: IEA PVPS, Snapshot of Global Photovoltaic Markets 2016, op. cit. this note, and Gaëtan Masson, IEA PVPS and Becquerel Institute, personal communication with REN21, 9 May 2017. India: End-2015 from IEA PVPS, Trends in Photovoltaic Applications, op. cit. this note. Additions in 2016 and year-end capacity based on data from Government of India, MNRE, “Physical progress (achievements)”, data as on 31 December 2016, http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements, viewed 19 January 2017, and from MNRE, “Physical progress (achievements)”, data as on 31 December 2015, viewed 1 February 2016, and assuming that India had 225 MW of CSP capacity (with no 2016 additions) in both years (See CSP section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and Reference Table R7). United Kingdom: UK Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, “Solar Photovoltaics Deployment in the UK February 2017”, updated 30 March 2017, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/585828/Solar_photovoltaics_deployment_March_2017.xlsx. Germany: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi), Zeitreihen zur Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland, unter Verwendung von Daten der Arbeitsgruppe Erneuerbare Energien-Statistik (AGEE-Stat) (Stand: Februar 2017), p. 7, http://www.erneuerbare-energien.de/EE/Redaktion/DE/Downloads/zeitreihen-zur-entwicklung-der-erneuerbaren-energien-in-deutschland-1990-2016.pdf. Republic of Korea: IEA PVPS, Snapshot of Global Photovoltaic Markets 2016, op. cit. this note, and Jaehong Seo, KOPIA, presentation for International Green Energy Conference 2017, Daegu, Republic of Korea, 5-6 April 2017, provided by Frank Haugwitz, Asia Europe Clean Energy (Solar) Advisory Co. Ltd., personal communication with REN21, 8 May 2017. Australia: Australian PV Institute, “Australian PV market since April 2001”, http://pv-map.apvi.org.au/analyses, viewed 2 May 2017. See Solar PV section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes for additional statistics and details.
  7. Table R7 compiled from the following sources: CSP Today, “Projects Tracker”, http://social.csptoday.com/tracker/projects, viewed on numerous dates leading up to 27 March 2017; US National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “Concentrating solar power projects by project name”, http://www.nrel.gov/csp/solarpaces/by_project.cfm, viewed on numerous dates leading up to 27 March 2017; REN21, Renewables 2016 Global Status Report (Paris: 2016), pp. 67-69, http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/REN21_GSR2016_FullReport_en_11.pdf; IRENA, Renewable Capacity Statistics 2017 (Abu Dhabi: 2017), http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_RE_Capacity_Statistics_2017.pdf. In some cases, information from the above sources was verified against additional country-specific sources, as cited in the endnotes for the CSP section. Global CSP data are based on commercial facilities only; demonstration or pilot facilities are excluded. Differences between IRENA and REN21 data are due primarily to inclusion of pilot and demonstration facilities in the IRENA report.
  8. Table R8 from the following sources: cumulative solar thermal capacity in operation nationally and globally at end-2015 from Monika Spörk-Dür, AEE INTEC, Gleisdorf, Austria, personal communications with REN21, March-May 2017; Werner Weiss and Monika Spörk-Dür, Solar Heat Worldwide: Markets and Contribution to the Energy Supply 2015 (Gleisdorf, Austria: IEA SHC, 2017). Gross additions on a national level from the following associations and experts: David Ferrari, Sustainability Victoria, Melbourne, Australia; Werner Weiss, AEE INTEC, Vienna, Austria; Marcelo Mesquita, ABRASOL, São Paulo, Brazil; Hongzhi Cheng, Shandong SunVision Management Consulting, Dezhou, China; Denmark from Daniel Trier, PlanEnergi, Skørping, Denmark, and from Jan-Olof Dalenbäck, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden; Richard Loyen, Enerplan, La Ciotat, France; Marco Tepper, BSW Solar, Berlin, Germany; Costas Travasaros, Greek Solar Industry Association (EBHE), Piraeus, Greece; Jaideep Malaviya, Solar Thermal Federation of India (STFI), Pune, India; Eli Shilton, Elsol, Kohar-yair, Israel; Federico Musazzi, ANIMA, the Federation of Italian Associations in the Mechanical and Engineering Industries, Milano, Italy; Kumiko Saito, Solar System Development Association (SSDA), Tokyo, Japan; Daniel Garcia, Solar Thermal Manufacturers Organisation (FAMERAC), Mexico City, Mexico; Janusz Staroscik, Association of Manufacturers and Importers of Heating Appliances (SPIUG), Warsaw, Poland; Karin Kritzinger, Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies, Univeristy of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Pascual Polo, Spanish Solar Thermal Association (ASIT), Madrid, Spain; David Stickelberger, Swissolar, Zurich, Switzerland; Kung-Ming Chung, Energy Research Center of the National Cheng Kung University (NCKU), Tainan City, Chinese Taipei; Turkey from Kutay Ülke, Bural Heating (formerly Ezinç Metal), Kayseri, Turkey, and from Krystyna Dawson, BSIRA, Berkshire, United Kingdom; Les Nelson, Solar Heating & Cooling Programs at the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO), Ontario, CA, United States, all personal communications with REN21, February-April 2017. Gross additions for South Africa were not available at the time of publication, so it is assumed that they remained stable from 2015 to 2016. Gross additions of Denmark for 2016 do not include the new district heating plant in Brønderslev (26,929 m2), which consists of parabolic trough collectors. Total gross additions worldwide for 2016 are based on estimates from Spörk-Dür, op. cit. this note.
  9. Table R9 from the following sources: Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), Global Wind Report: Annual Market Update 2016 (Brussels: April 2017), http://www.gwec.net/strong-outlook-for-wind-power/; FTI Consulting, Global Wind Market Update – Demand & Supply 2016, Part Two – Demand Side Analysis (London: March 2017); World Wind Energy Association (WWEA), WWEA Annual Report 2016 (Bonn: May 2017), http://www.wwindea.org/; WindEurope, Wind in Power 2016 European Statistics (Brussels: 9 February 2017), https://windeurope.org/wp-content/uploads/files/about-wind/statistics/WindEurope-Annual-Statistics-2016.pdf. Additional sources listed where relevant. China: 2015 year-end official data from China Electricity Council, cited by China National Energy Administration (CNEA), provided by Shi Pengfei, Chinese Wind Energy Association (CWEA), personal communication with REN21, 21 March 2017; 2016 official data from China National Energy Board, cited in Dazhong Xiao, CNEA, “2016 wind power and grid operation”, 26 January 2017, www.nea.gov.cn/2017-01/26/c_136014615.htm (using Google Translate); unofficial 2015 and 2016 data based on CWEA, provided by Shi, op. cit. this note. United States: American Wind Energy Association, “U.S. Wind Industry Fourth Quarter 2016 Market Update” (Washington, DC: 26 January 2017), http://awea.files.cms-plus.com/FileDownloads/pdfs/4Q2016%20AWEA%20Market%20Report%20Public%20Version.pdf, and AWEA, AWEA U.S. Wind Industry Annual Market Report Year Ending 2016 (Washington, DC: April 2017), http://www.awea.org/AnnualMarketReport.aspx?ItemNumber=10217. Germany: BMWI, op. cit. note 6. India: 2015 year-end total from Government of India, MNRE, “Physical progress (achievements) up to the month of December 2015”, www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements, viewed 1 February 2016; 2016 additions and year-end total from Government of India, Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority, All India Installed Capacity, Monthly Report January 2017 (New Delhi: 2017), Table: “All India Installed Capacity (in MW) of Power Stations (As on 31.01.2017) (Utilities)”, http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/installedcapacity/2017/installed_capacity-01.pdf. Brazil: Associação Brasileira de Energia Eólica (ABEEólica), “Dados Mensais”, January 2017, http://www.abeeolica.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Dados-Mensais-ABEEolica-01.2017-1.pdf, pp. 4, 6. Note that Brazil had 10,123.9 MW at end-2016 from Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica (ANEEL), “Informações Gerenciais”, December 2016, http://www.aneel.br/informacoes-gerenciais. France: WindEurope, op. cit. this note. Note that France had 11,670 MW in operation as of 31 December 2016, from RTE Réseau de transport d’électricité, Bilan Électrique Français 2016: Synthèse presse (Paris: 2016), p. 5, http://www.rte-france.com/sites/default/files/2016_bilan_electrique_synthese.pdf. Turkey: Turkish Wind Energy Association, Turkish Wind Energy Statistics Report (Ankara: January 2017), pp. 4, 5, http://www.tureb.com.tr/files/tureb_sayfa/duyurular/2017_duyurular/subat/turkiye_ruzgar_enerjisi_istatistik_raporu_ocak_2017.pdf. The Netherlands: 2015 and 2016 data based on WindEurope, op. cit. this note. Note that the Netherlands added 815 MW for a total of 4,206 MW, from Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, “Hernieuwbare elektriciteit; productie en vermogen”, 28 February 2017, http://statline.cbs.nl/Statweb/publication/?DM=SLNL&PA=82610NED&D1=7&D2=2-4&D3=25-26&HDR=T,G2&STB=G1&VW=T. United Kingdom: 2015 and 2016 data based on WindEurope, op. cit. this note. Note that the United Kingdom had 14,292 MW at end-2015 and 15,696 MW at end-2016, based on preliminary data from UK Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, National Statistics, Energy Trends Section 6: Renewables, updated 30 March 2017, Table 6.1 “Renewable electricity capacity and generation”, p. 69, https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/energy-trends-section-6-renewables. Canada: Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA), “Installed capacity”, http://canwea.ca/wind-energy/installed-capacity/, viewed 17 February 2017. Spain: WindEurope, op. cit. this note. Additions in 2016 of 38 MW from Spanish Wind Power Association (AEE) using the official certificate of commissioning as the criterion, cited in GWEC, “Spain installed 38 wind power megawatts in 2016”, 14 March 2017, http://www.gwec.net/spain-installed-38-wind-power-megawatts-in-2016/. Italy: WindEurope, op. cit. this note. See Wind Power section in Market and Industry Trends chapter and related endnotes for further statistics and details.
  10. Table R10 from IEA, World Energy Outlook 2016 Energy Access Database, http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/resources/energydevelopment/energyaccessdatabase/, viewed 28 March 2017, and from Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL), Africa Hub Country Database, https://www.se4all-africa.org/se4all-in-africa/country-data/, viewed 28 March 2017.10
  11. Table R11 from the following sources: IEA, op. cit. note 10; SEforALL, op. cit. note 10; Chile and Mexico from SEforALL, Global Tracking Framework: Progress Toward Sustainable Energy (Washington, DC: 2017), http://gtf.esmap.org/data/files/download-documents/eegp17-01_gtf_summary_for_web_0428.pdf.11
  12. Table R12 from submissions by report contributors and from various institutional reports and websites.12
  13. Table R13 from Ibid.13
  14. Table R14 from Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance and Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2017 (Frankfurt: April 2017), pp. 32-33, http://fs-unep-centre.org/publications/global-trends-renewable-energy-investment-2016.14
  15. Table R15 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EUROSTAT, Energy from Renewable Sources: Shares (Brussels: 2016), http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/shares. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.15
  16. Table R16 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EUROSTAT, op. cit. note 15. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.16
  17. Table R17 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EUROSTAT, op. cit. note 15. IEA statistics based on data from IEA, “Electricity Information 2015, www.iea.org/statistics, as modified by REN21. Targets for the EU-28 were set in each country's National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP), available at http://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/renewable-energy/national-action-plans; certain NREAP targets have been revised subsequently. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.
  18. Table R18 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EurObserv’ER. Targets for the EU-28 were set in each country's National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP), available at http://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/renewable-energy/national-action-plans; certain NREAP targets have been revised subsequently. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.18
  19. Table R19 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.19
  20. Table R20 from the following sources: All available policy references, including the IEA/IRENA online Global Renewable Energy Policies and Measures database, published sources as given in the endnotes for the Policy Landscape chapter of this report, and submissions from report contributors.20
  21. Table R21 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EurObserv’ER. Targets for the EU-28 were set in each country's NREAP, available at http://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/renewable-energy/national-action-plans; certain NREAP targets have been revised subsequently. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.21
  22. Table R22 from the following sources: All available policy references, including the IEA/IRENA online Global Renewable Energy Policies and Measures database, published sources as given in the endnotes for the Policy Landscape chapter of this report, and submissions from report contributors.22
  23. Table R23 from REN21 database compiled from all available policy references plus submissions from report contributors. EU targets and shares from EUROSTAT, op. cit. note 15. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net. Targets for the EU-28 and Energy Community countries were set in each country’s NREAP; certain NREAP targets have been revised subsequently. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.23
  24. Table R24 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EUROSTAT, op. cit. note 15. For online updates, see the “Renewables Interactive Map” at www.ren21.net.24
  25. Table R25 from Ibid., from IRENA and from Jim Lane, “Biofuels Mandates Around the World: 2015”, Biofuels Digest, 3 January 2016, http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2016/01/03/biofuels-mandates-around-the-world-2016.25
  26. Table R26 from REN21 database compiled from all available policy references plus submissions from report contributors the following sources: For selected targets and policies, see: EU Covenant of Mayors; C40 Cities; ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability; REN21, Global Futures Report (Paris: 2013); and REN21, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies and ICLEI, 2011 Global Status Report on Local Renewable Energy Policies (Paris: May 2011). For additional information on sources See endnote 1 for the Policy Landscape chapter.26