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GSR 2015

230 ENDNOTES 05 DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR ENERGY ACCESS DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR ENERGY ACCESS 1 World Health Organization (WHO), Burden of Disease from Household Air Pollution for 2012 (Geneva: 2014); K.R. Smith et al., “Millions Dead: How Do We Know and What Does It Mean? Methods Used in the Comparative Risk Assessment of Household Air Pollution,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 35 (2014), pp. 185–206; Meera Subramanian, “Global Health: Deadly Dinners,” Nature, vol. 509, no. 7502 (2014), pp. 548–551. 2 B.K. Sovacool, M. Kryman, and T.C. Smith. “Energy, Poverty, and Development: A Global Review,” Energy, Poverty, and Development (London: Routledge Critical Concepts in Development Studies Series, Four Volumes, 2014), pp. 1–126. 3 Ibid. 4 One, “Energy: The Challenge,” http://www.one.org/international/ issues/energy/, viewed 18 May 2015. 5 World Bank, Global Tracking Framework: Energy Access (Washington, DC: 2015), http://www-wds.worldbank. org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/20 13/05/23/000442464_20130523110507/Rendered/ PDF/778890WP0v10EN0y0Box377317B00OUO090.pdf. 6 International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Renewable Energy Jobs & Access (Abu Dhabi: 2012), https://www.irena.org/ DocumentDownloads/Publications/Renewable_Energy_Jobs_ and_Access.pdf. 7 Energy security from B.K. Sovacool, “A Qualitative Factor Analysis of Renewable Energy and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) in the Asia-Pacific,” Energy Policy, vol. 59 (2013), pp. 393–403; fuel-related costs from Hanung Budya and Muhammad Yasir Arofat, “Providing Cleaner Energy Access in Indonesia Through the Megaproject of Kerosene Conversion to LPG,” Energy Policy, vol. 39 (2011), pp. 7575–86; educational skills from Asian Development Bank (ADB), Energy for All: Addressing the Energy, Environment, and Poverty Nexus in Asia (Manila: 2007), http:// www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/29137/energy-all.pdf; fuelwood from B.S. Reddy, P. Balachandra, and H.S.K. Nathan, “Universalization of Access to Modern Energy Services in Indian Households—Economic and Policy Analysis,” Energy Policy, vol. 37 (2009), pp. 4645–57; emissions from Smith et al., op. cit. note 1. 8 World Bank, op. cit. note 5. 9 Ibid. 10 Figures 35 and 36 based on information sourced from World Bank Global Electrification database 2015. 11 World Bank, op. cit. note 5. 12 Ibid. 13 International Energy Agency, “Modern Energy for All,” http://www. worldenergyoutlook.org/resources/energydevelopment/, viewed 2 April 2015. 14 IRENA, Prospects for the African Power Sector (Abu Dhabi: 2012), http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/ Prospects_for_the_African_PowerSector.pdf; German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), Facts and Figures (Berlin: 2015), http://www.bmwi.de/DE/Themen/Energie/ Strommarkt-der-Zukunft/zahlen-fakten.html. 15 Figure of 23 GW from Kathleen J. Hancock, “The Expanding Horizon of Renewable Energy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Leading Research in the Social Sciences,” Energy Research & Social Science, vol. 5 (January 2015), pp. 1–8; for India, see Reference Table R2 and Endnote 2 for that section. 16 Laura El-Katiri, “Energy Poverty in the Middle East and North Africa,” Energy Poverty (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 271–95. 17 D. Palit and A. Chaurey, “Off-Grid Rural Electrification Experiences from South Asia: Status and Best Practices,” Energy for Sustainable Development, vol. 15 (2011), pp. 266–76. 18 World Bank, op. cit. note 5. 19 Ibid. 20 United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), Pacific Perspectives on the Challenges to Energy Security and the Sustainable Use of Energy (Bangkok: 2012), http://www.theprif.org/components/com_jomcomdev/ files/2014/11/45/36-energy-security-final.pdf. 21 World Bank, op. cit. note 5. 22 Ibid. 23 Ibid. 24 Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL), “Solar Home System Program,” http://idcol.org/home/solar, 2014. 25 Global Off-Grid Lighting Association (GOGLA), “2nd Off-grid Energy Access Lighting Conference” (London: December 2014), http://global-off-grid-lighting-association.org/wp-content/ uploads/2014/12/December-17-All-Slides.pdf. 26 Practical Action, “Small-Scale Wind Power,” August 2014, http:// practicalaction.org/small-scale-wind-power. 27 Nepal Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC), “Growth Trend of MH Electrification Scheme,” 2013, http://www.aepc. gov.np/?option=statistics&page=substatistics&mid=6&sub_ id=50&id=1. 28 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Achieving Sustainable Energy for All in the Asia-Pacific (Bangkok: 2013), http://www.asia-pacific.undp.org/content/dam/rbap/docs/ Research%20&%20Publications/environment_energy/RBAP-EE- 2013-SE4ALL.pdf. 29 Ibid.; I. Mukherjee and B.K. Sovacool, “Sustainability Principles of the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB’s) Energy Policy: An Opportunity for Greater Future Synergies,” Renewable Energy, vol. 48, no. 12 (2012), pp. 173–82. 30 World Bank, “New Partnership to Help Bring Clean Cooking to 100 Million Households by 2020,” press release (Washington, DC: 21 November 2014), http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/ press-release/2014/11/21/new-partnership-to-help-bring-clean- cooking-to-100-million-households-by-2020. 31 Kirk R. Smith et al., “One Hundred Million Improved Cookstoves in China: How Was It Done?” World Development, vol. 21, no. 6 (1993), pp. 941–61; Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC), Market Enabling Roadmap 2015-2017 (Washington, DC: 2014), http://www.cleancookstoves.org/resources_files/market- enabling-roadmap-phase-2-extended.pdf. 32 C. Rogers et al., “Sweet Nectar of the Gaia: Lessons from Ethiopia’s ‘Project Gaia,” Energy for Sustainable Development, vol. 17, no. 3 (2013), pp. 245–51. 33 SME Funds, “SME Funds Announces Partnership with the UN Sustainable Energy for All Initiative,” press release (Abu Dhabi: 23 January 2014), http://smefunds.com/smefunds-announces- partnership-with-the-un-sustainable-energy-for-all-initiative.php. 34 Sovacool, Kryman, and Smith. op. cit. note 2. 35 Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV), Concept Paper on SNV’s Engagement in the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (The Hague: 2011), http://cleancookstoves.org/resources_files/ concept-paper-on-snvs.pdf. 36 Biogas Support Program, Nepal, “Achievements,” http://www. bspnepal.org.np/index.php?option=cms&cid=15, viewed 1 April 2015. 37 As many as 14,000 from Allison Archambault, EarthSpark International, Washington, DC, personal communication with REN21, 12 March 2015; over 4,000 installed and countless other actors from Rachel Belt, “PetroCaribe Helps Fight Poverty, Build Roads, Social Housing in Haiti,” Caribbean News Now! 9 September 2013, http://www.caribbeannewsnow.com/headline- PetroCaribe-helps-fight-poverty,-build-roads,-social-housing-in- Haiti-17581.html. 38 Felicity Solar, “Solar Street Lighting in Nigeria,” http://www.felicitysolar.com/index. php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=54&id=65. 39 Practical Action, Poor People’s Energy Outlook 2010 (Rugby, UK: 2010), http://practicalaction.org/docs/energy/poor-peoples- energy-outlook.pdf. 40 Archambault, op. cit. note 37. 41 Romeu Gaspar, “The Rise of Green Mobile Telecom Towers,” Renewable Energy World, 19 February 2013, http://www. renewableenergyworld.com/rea/blog/post/2013/02/ the-rise-of-green-mobile-telecom-towers. 42 S. Szabo et al., “Energy Solutions in Rural Africa: Mapping Electrification Costs of Distributed Solar and Diesel Generation versus Grid Extension,” Environmental Research Letters, vol. 6 (2011); C.E. Casillas and D.M. Kammen, “The Challenge of Making Reliable Carbon Abatement Estimates: The Case of Diesel Microgrids,” Sapiens, vol. 5, no. 2 (2012), pp. 1–9. DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR ENERGY ACCESS BACK

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