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Global Futures Report 2013 - Photo Credits

74 PHOTO CREDITS What will happen in the United States if the Production Tax Credit (PTC) and Investment Tax Credit (ITC) are not renewed? All U.S. experts acknowledged the large impact that federal support policies would have on future markets, but also noted that existing state-level policies still provided some long-term certainties. Experts gave various prognoses of what markets would do if the PTC and/or ITC expire.23 (See United States in Chapter 5, page 46.) 6. “Policies” 22. “United States” How extensive will “south-south” technology transfer become in the coming decade, and to what extent will Chinese manufacturing spread to other developing countries? Said one developing country expert, “South-south energy development and technology transfer will no longer be a cliché but will be real—people in developing countries really need to learn how to build, design, install renewables and will start to seriously learn from each other.”24 (See developing countries in Chapter 5, page 48.) 27. “Developing Countries” Technologies When does solar PV reach grid parity and what does that mean? Many experts said grid parity already exists in many locations around the world and would soon come to many more, transforming electric utility systems both technically and financially. Scenarios generally put grid parity farther in the future. Some experts disputed the meaning of “grid parity” itself.25 (See solar PV in Chapter 6, page 56.) 2. "Cost Comparisons" 12. "Utility Grids" 13. "Distributed Grids" 28. “Solar Power” In what ways does solar thermal power (CSP) with embedded energy storage capture the balancing value from storage, or serve industrial uses? Experts pointed to many potential uses of CSP for grid balancing, industrial process heat, desalination, and other stand-alone applications. These new applications have yet to capture the full value of CSP, said experts.26 (See industry in Chapter 2, page 29, and CSP in Chapter 6, page 57.) 12. "Power Grids" 14. "Energy Storage" 18. “Industry” 28. “Solar Power” What are the pros and cons of offshore wind power? Pros include less visual and noise impact, no NIMBY (“not in my backyard”) issues, more predictable wind patterns, and bigger project sizes. Cons include higher costs and policy support needed, technical and logistics difficulties, and centralized nature crowding out decentralized options.27 (See Great Debate 11, page 55.) 29. “Wind Power” Which markets will make the most use of biomass resources in the future? Some believed that biomass was better left for heat supply, including gasification and combined heat and power, while others envisioned much greater power generation. Others said that the question is wrong, as integrated “biorefineries” of the future yield multiple products with high efficiency, linked with other industrial sectors.28 (See buildings in Chapter 2, page 26, heat supply in Chapter 4, page 40, and biomass in Chapter 6, page 58.) 30. "Biomass and Biofuels" How long will it take to commercialize cellulosic-ethanol? Some said that this technology is already commercial, given a number of plants already in operation. Others said that the technology is still, as it has been for several years, “a few years away.” A few said they have given up waiting and did not believe that cellulosic ethanol would ever be commercial.29 (See biofuels in Chapter 6, page 60.) 30. "Biomass and Biofuels" How sustainable can biofuels become in the long term? Experts were divided over the long-term future of so-called first-generation biofuels, in large part due to sustainability issues, including land use, deforestation, food prices and security, and social issues.30 (See Great Debate 12, page 60.) 30. "Biomass and Biofuels" RENEWABLES GLOBAL FUTURES REPORT ANNEXes Page 29 Modern house, James C Pruitt Page 30 Electric cars, Yokohama, Japan, istockphoto Page 31 Triple biofuels dispenser, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, courtesy of DOE/NREL Page 39 Williams Building, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, courtesy of DOE/NREL Page 40 Rooftop solar hot water systems in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China, courtesy of DOE/NREL Page 41 Electric car, Fort Bliss, Texas, USA, courtesy of DOE/NREL Page 43 Biodiesel bus, Boulder, Colorado, USA, courtesy of DOE/NREL Page 54 Wind power, istockphoto Page 55 Offshore wind farm, istockphoto Page 56 Rooftop solar PV, istockphoto Page 57 CSP plant, istockphoto Page 58 Wood pellets, istockphoto Page 59 Srinagcrarin Dam, Thailand, istockphoto Page 59 Ocean energy, Dr. I.J. Stevenson Page 60 Hop vines and leaves, istockphoto

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