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Global Futures Report 2013 - Local Visions and Actions for 100% Renewable Communities

43 Example of 100% Electricity Munich, Germany, plans by 2025 to meet all city electricity demand from 100% renewable power through a combina- tion of local capacity and out-of-city capacity ownership that provides renewable energy certificates. Local capacity will be a mix of hydro, solar PV, geothermal, biomass, biofuels, and biogas. The plan also envisions profiting from investments in renewable energy capacity Europe-wide in sufficient quantity to cover local demand, including solar PV farms in the German states of Saxony and Bavaria as well as in Spain, and wind farms in the North Sea.31 04 Local Visions and Actions for 100% Renewable Communities Growing numbers of regions, cities, towns, and communities are envisioning “100%” renewable energy futures for themselves in the long term. Already, a number of small towns meet 100% or close to 100% of their electricity and heating needs from local renew- able energy sources. Examples include Güssing (Austria), Samsø and Thisted (Denmark), Dardesheim and Schönau (Germany), Varese (Italy), and Kuzumaki (Japan). Some of these communities also pro- duce “surplus” renewables that they use to offset fossil fuel trans- portation, and thus can declare themselves “100% total energy.”28 Many medium-size cities aim to transition to various forms of "100%" in the coming decades, such as Fredrickshavn (Denmark), Moura (Portugal), Malmö (Sweden), and San Francisco (USA). Larger cities, with populations over 1 million, are also working toward various "100%" or "near-100%" goals in time frames ranging from 2025 to 2050, and have set benchmarks along the way. Examples include Copenhagen (Denmark), Hamburg and Munich (Germany), Gothenburg (Sweden), Rizhao (China), and Sydney (Australia).29 While some cities have set explicit 100% renewable energy visions, others have instead established carbon-neutral or fossil-fuel- free goals that imply moving toward 100% renewable energy. In Sweden, Växjö aims to be fossil-fuel-free by 2030, and Gothenburg and Stockholm aim for the same by 2050. Copenhagen, Denmark, plans to be the world’s first carbon-neutral capital by 2025. Many cities have also set specific carbon-reduction targets, many of which are in the range of 40–80% reduction from 1990 baselines by 2050, often with incremental goals to be met in 2025 or 2030. A wide range of other cities aim to become “green” cities in the 2030–2050 time frame, such as Sydney (Australia), Toronto and Vancouver (Canada), Paris (France), Berlin (Germany), Amsterdam (the Netherlands), London (U.K.), and Chicago, Portland, and Seattle (USA).30 The integration of renewable energy in the urban environment is also being advanced through the development of zero-emission or renewable energy neighborhoods and districts within cities. As large cities transition to decentralized renewable energy supply, they envision starting with smaller 100% renewable energy neighbor- hoods and districts. Local authorities are advancing the integration of renewable energy through self-sufficient communities within the larger city environment. Such districts allow for a step-wise scale-up of renewable energy and help local authorities to gain best practices, encourage business engagement, demonstrate innova- tions, and gain public interest and acceptance. Several cities such as Vancouver (Canada), Copenhagen (Denmark), Helsinki (Finland), Hamburg and Munich (Germany), Rotterdam (the Netherlands), Stockholm and Malmö (Sweden), and London (U.K.) have planned or begun implementing zero-emissions districts.32 National and local governments also plan a number of 100% renewable energy cities to be newly constructed “from the ground up.” Examples include “Masdar City” in the United Arab Emirates, “PlanIT” Valley in Portugal, “Songdo” in South Korea, and “Tianjin Eco City” in China. Planned populations for these cities range from the thousands to the hundreds of thousands.33

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