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ECOWAS Status Report

| 84 percentage of total supply or a stated amount of capacity. Costs are generally borne by consumers. Mandates can include renewable portfolio standards (RPS); building codes or obligations that require the installation of renewable heat or power technologies (often in combination with energy efficiency investments); renewable heat purchase requirements; and requirements for blending biofuels into transport fuel. MARKET CONCESSION MODEL. A model in which a private company or NGO is selected through a competitive process and given the exclusive obligation to provide energy services to customers in its service territory, upon customer request. The concession approach allows concessionaires to select the most appropriate and cost- effective technology for a given situation. MINI-GRIDS. Small electric grids that serve entire communities through distribution networks. Until recently, most mini-grids relied on diesel fuel. Hydro-powered mini-grids are mature technologies, whereas gas-fired generator mini-grids, powered by agricultural waste or biogas, are maturing technologies. The use of inverter-connected mini-grids that incorporate a variety of renewable and other technologies (including battery banks) is developing rapidly. MODERN BIOMASS ENERGY. Energy derived from combustion of solid, liquid, and gaseous biomass fuels in efficient small domestic appliances to large-scale industrial conversion plants for modern applications of space heating, electricity generation, combined heat and power, and transport (as opposed to traditional biomass energy). NET METERING. A regulated arrangement in which utility customers who have installed their own generating systems pay only for the net electricity delivered from the utility (total consumption minus on-site self-generation). A variation that employs two meters with differing tariffs for purchasing electricity and exporting excess electricity off-site is called “net billing.” OCEAN ENERGY. Energy captured from ocean waves (generated by wind passing over the surface), tides, currents, salinity gradients, and ocean temperature differences. Wave energy converters capture the energy of surface waves to generate electricity; tidal stream generators use kinetic energy of moving water to power turbines; and tidal barrages are essentially dams that cross tidal estuaries and capture energy as tides flow in and out. POWER. The rate at which energy is converted per unit of time, expressed in Watts (Joules/second). PRIMARY ENERGY. The theoretically available energy content of a naturally occurring energy source (such as coal, oil, natural gas, uranium ore, geothermal and biomass energy, etc.) before it undergoes conversion to useful final energy delivered to the end- user. Conversion of primary energy into other forms of useful final energy (such as electricity and fuels) entails losses. Some primary energy is consumed at the end-user level as final energy without any prior conversion. PRODUCTION TAX CREDIT. A taxation measure that provides the investor or owner of a qualifying property or facility with an annual tax credit based on the amount of renewable energy (electricity, heat, or biofuel) generated by that facility. PUBLIC COMPETITIVE BIDDING (also called auction or tender). A procurement mechanism by which public authorities solicit bids for a given amount of renewable energy supply or capacity, generally based on price. Sellers offer the lowest price that they would be willing to accept, but typically at prices above standard market levels. REGULATORY POLICY. A rule to guide or control the conduct of those to whom it applies. In the renewable energy context, examples include mandates or quotas such as renewable portfolio standards, feed-in tariffs, biofuel blending mandates, and renewable heat obligations. RENEWABLE ENERGY TARGET. An official commitment, plan, or goal set by a government (at the local, state, national, or regional level) to achieve a certain amount of renewable energy by a future date. Some targets are legislated while others are set by regulatory agencies or ministries. RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD (RPS). An obligation placed by a government on a utility company, group of companies, or consumers to provide or use a predetermined minimum renewable share of installed capacity, or of electricity or heat generated or sold. A penalty may or may not exist for non-compliance. These policies are also known as “renewable electricity standards,” “renewable obligations,” and “mandated market shares,” depending on the jurisdiction. SMART GRID. Electrical grid that uses information and communications technology to co-ordinate the needs and capabilities of the generators, grid operators, end-users, and electricity market stakeholders in a system, with the aim of operating all parts as efficiently as possible, minimising costs and environmental impacts, and maximising system reliability, resilience, and stability. SOLAR COLLECTOR. A device used for converting solar energy to thermal energy (heat), typically used for domestic water heating but also used for space heating, industrial process heat, or to drive thermal cooling machines. Evacuated tube and flat-plate collectors that operate with water or a water/glycol mixture as the heat- transfer medium are the most common solar thermal collectors used worldwide. These are referred to as glazed water collectors because irradiation from the sun first hits a glazing (for thermal insulation) before the energy is converted to heat and transported

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