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ECOWAS Status Report

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY STATUS REPORT 2014 | 83 DISTRIBUTED GENERATION. Generation of electricity from dispersed, generally small-scale systems that are close to the point of consumption. ENERGY. The ability to do work, which comes in a number of forms including thermal, radiant, kinetic, chemical, potential, and electrical. Primary energy is the energy embodied in (energy potential of) natural resources, such as coal, natural gas, and renewable sources. Final energy is the energy delivered to end- use facilities (such as electricity to an electrical outlet), where it becomes usable energy and can provide services such as lighting, refrigeration, etc. When primary energy is converted into useful energy, there are always losses involved. ETHANOL (FUEL). A liquid fuel made from biomass (typically corn, sugar cane, or small cereals/grains) that can replace gasoline in modest percentages for use in ordinary spark-ignition engines (stationary or in vehicles), or that can be used at higher blend levels (usually up to 85% ethanol, or 100% in Brazil) in slightly modified engines such as those provided in “flex-fuel vehicles.” Note that some ethanol production is used for industrial, chemical, and beverage applications and not for fuel. FEED-IN TARIFF (FIT). The basic form of feed-in policies. A guaranteed minimum price (tariff) per unit (normally kWh or MWh) is guaranteed over a stated fixed-term period when electricity can be sold and fed into the electricity network, normally with priority or guaranteed grid access and dispatch. FINAL ENERGY. The part of primary energy, after deduction of losses from conversion, transmission, and distribution, that reaches the consumer and is available to provide heating, hot water, lighting, and other services. Final energy forms include electricity, district heating, mechanical energy, liquid hydrocarbons such as kerosene or fuel oil, and various gaseous fuels such as natural gas, biogas, and hydrogen. Final energy accounts only for the conversion losses that occur upstream of the end-user, such as losses at refineries and power plants. FISCAL INCENTIVE. An economic incentive that provides individuals, households, or companies with a reduction in their contribution to the public treasury via income or other taxes, or with direct payments from the public treasury in the form of rebates or grants. GENERATION. The process of converting energy into electricity and/ or useful heat from a primary energy source such as wind, solar radiation, natural gas, biomass, etc. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY. Heat energy emitted from within the Earth’s crust, usually in the form of hot water or steam. It can be used to generate electricity in a thermal power plant or to provide heat directly at various temperatures for buildings, industry, and agriculture. HEAT PUMP. A device that transfers heat from a heat source to a heat sink using a refrigeration cycle that is driven by external electric or thermal energy. It can use the ground (geothermal), the surrounding air (aerothermal), or a body of water (hydrothermal) as a heat source in heating mode, and as a heat sink in cooling mode. A heat pump’s final energy output can be several multiples of the energy input, depending on its inherent efficiency and operating condition.The output of a heat pump is at least partially renewable on a final energy basis. However, the renewable component can be much lower on a primary energy basis, depending on the composition and derivation of the input energy; in the case of electricity, this includes the efficiency of the power generation process. The output of a heat pump can be fully renewable energy if the input energy is also fully renewable. HYDROPOWER. Electricity derived from the potential energy of water captured when moving from higher to lower elevations. Categories of hydropower projects include run-of-river, reservoir- based capacity, and low-head in-stream technology (the least developed). Hydropower covers a continuum in project scale from large (usually defined as more than 10 MW of installed capacity, but the definition varies by country) to small, mini, micro, and pico. INVESTMENT. Purchase of an item of value with an expectation of favourable future returns. In this report, new investment in renewable energy refers to investment in: technology research and development, commercialisation, construction of manufacturing facilities, and project development (including construction of wind farms, purchase and installation of solar PV systems). Total investment refers to new investment plus merger and acquisition (M&A) activity (the refinancing and sale of companies and projects). INVESTMENT TAX CREDIT. A taxation measure that allows investments in renewable energy to be fully or partially deducted from the tax obligations or income of a project developer, industry, building owner, etc. JOULE/KILOJOULE/MEGAJOULE/GIGAJOULE/TERAJOULE/PETAJOULE/ EXAJOULE. A Joule (J) is a unit of work or energy equal to the energy expended to produce one Watt of power for one second. For example, one Joule is equal to the energy required to lift an apple straight up by one metre. The energy released as heat by a person at rest is about 60 J per second. A kilojoule (kJ) is a unit of energy equal to one thousand (103 ) Joules; a megajoule (MJ) is one million (106 ) Joules; and so on. The potential chemical energy stored in one barrel of oil and released when combusted is approximately 6 GJ; a tonne of oven dry wood contains around 20 GJ of energy. MANDATE/OBLIGATION. A measure that requires designated parties (consumers, suppliers, generators) to meet a minimum, and often gradually increasing, target for renewable energy, such as a GLOSSARY

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