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ECOWAS Status Report

| 82 BIODIESEL. A fuel produced from oilseed crops such as soy, rapeseed (canola), and palm oil, and from other oil sources such as waste cooking oil and animal fats. Biodiesel is used in diesel engines installed in cars, trucks, buses, and other vehicles, as well as in stationary heat and power applications. Also see Hydro- treated vegetable oil. BIOENERGY. Energy derived from any form of biomass, including bio-heat, bio-power, and biofuel. Bio-heat arises from the combustion of solid biomass (such as dry fuel wood) or other liquid or gaseous energy carriers. The heat can be used directly or used to produce bio-power by creating steam to drive engines or turbines that drive electricity generators. Alternatively, gaseous energy carriers such as biomethane, landfill gas, or synthesis gas (produced from the thermal gasification of biomass) can be used to fuel a gas engine. Biofuels for transport are sometimes also included under the term bioenergy (see Biofuels). BIOFUELS. A wide range of liquid and gaseous fuels derived from biomass. Biofuels—including liquid fuel ethanol and biodiesel, as well as biogas—can be combusted in vehicle engines as transport fuels and in stationary engines for heat and electricity generation. They also can be used for domestic heating and cooking (for example, as ethanol gels). Advanced biofuels are made from sustainably produced non-food biomass sources using technologies that are still in the pilot, demonstration, or early commercial stages. One exception is hydro-treated vegetable oil (HVO), which is now produced commercially in several plants. BIOGAS/BIOMETHANE. Biogas is a gaseous mixture consisting mainly of methane and carbon dioxide produced by the anaerobic digestion of organic matter (broken down by micro-organisms in the absence of oxygen). Organic material and/or waste is converted into biogas in a digester. Suitable feedstocks include agricultural residues, animal wastes, food industry wastes, sewage sludge, purpose-grown green crops, and the organic components of municipal solid wastes. Raw biogas can be combusted to produce heat and/or power; it can also be transformed into biomethane through a simple process known as scrubbing that removes impurities including carbon dioxide, siloxanes, and hydrogen sulphides. Biomethane can be injected directly into natural gas networks and used as a substitute for natural gas in internal combustion engines without fear of corrosion. BIOMASS. Any material of biological origin, excluding fossil fuels or peat, that contains a chemical store of energy (originally received from the sun) and is available for conversion to a wide range of convenient energy carriers. These can take many forms, including liquid biofuels, biogas, biomethane, pyrolysis oil, or solid biomass pellets. BIOMASS PELLETS. Solid biomass fuel produced by compressing pulverised dry biomass, such as waste wood and agricultural residues. Torrefied pellets produced by heating the biomass pellets have higher energy content per kilogram, as well as better grindability, water resistance, and storability. Pellets are typically cylindrical in shape with a diameter of around 10 millimetres and a length of 30–50 millimetres. Pellets are easy to handle, store, and transport and are used as fuel for heating and cooking applications, as well as for electricity generation and combined heat and power. BRIQUETTES. Blocks of flammable matter made from solid biomass fuels, including cereal straw, that are compressed in a process similar to the production of wood pellets. They are physically much larger than pellets, with a diameter of 50–100 millimetres and a length of 60–150 millimetres. They are less easy to handle automatically but can be used as a substitute for fuelwood logs. CAPACITY. The rated capacity of a heat or power generating plant refers to the potential instantaneous heat or electricity output, or the aggregate potential output of a collection of such units (such as a wind farm or set of solar panels). Installed capacity describes equipment that has been constructed, although it may or may not be operational (e.g., delivering electricity to the grid, providing useful heat, or producing biofuels). CAPITALSUBSIDY.A subsidy that covers a share of the upfront capital cost of an asset (such as a solar water heater). These include, for example, consumer grants, rebates, or one-time payments by a utility, government agency, or government-owned bank. CLEAN COOK STOVE. Clean cook stove technologies address the negative health and environmental impacts associated with traditional cooking technologies. While a number of clean cooking technologies meet this definition there is currently no definitive standard for what constitutes a clean cook stove. CONCENTRATINGSOLARTHERMALPOWER(CSP) (also called concentrating solar power or solar thermal electricity, STE). Technology that uses mirrors to focus sunlight into an intense solar beam that heats a working fluid in a solar receiver, which then drives a turbine or heat engine/generator to produce electricity. The mirrors can be arranged in a variety of ways, but they all deliver the solar beam to the receiver. There are four types of commercial CSP systems: parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel, power towers, and dish/engines.The first two technologies are line-focus systems, capable of concentrating the sun’s energy to produce temperatures of 400 °C, while the latter two are point-focus systems that can produce temperatures of 800 °C or higher.These high temperatures make thermal energy storage simple, efficient, and inexpensive. The addition of storage—using a fluid (most commonly molten salt) to store heat—usually gives CSP power plants the flexibility needed for reliable integration into a power grid. GLOSSARY

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