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ECOWAS Status Report

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY STATUS REPORT 2014 | 63 National targets are often found in overarching energy development strategies. As energy efficiency is inherently a cross-cutting issue, targets aimed at energy efficiency in specific areas, such as the electricity grid or sustainable energy access, are addressed in Chapter 3. A number of additional targets exist for overall energy savings or fuel efficiency. Ghana’s National Energy Policy identifies inefficiency in the production, transportation, and use of energy as one of seven key challenges facing the country’s energy sector.59 Under the policy, the national objectives for 2009–2012 were to achieve 10% savings in electricity consumption through electric power efficiency and conservation and 15% savings in petroleum products consumption.xxi Additionally, Ghana has established a target to reduce the wood intensity of charcoal production from the existing ratio of 4:1 to 3:1 by 2015 in its Savannah zone and from the current 5-6:1 to 4:1 in the country’s forest zone by 2015.xxii,60 Guinea has also targeted an increase in the efficiency of wood fuels, aiming for a 20% reduction in use of wood resources. This is expected to be achieved through a strategy aimed at rationalising production and consumption, making local communities responsible for managing forests, and diversifying combustibles by promoting butane as a substitute. Energy Efficiency Policies In addition to the established regional energy efficiency framework, a number of ECOWAS Member States have adopted individual policy mechanisms aimed at improving energy efficiency across multiple sectors. Compared to the electricity sector, however, there is a lack of energy efficiency legislation in most countries, including a paucity of standards for end-user appliances and a little to no regulation or appliance monitoring systems. This is often due to limited institutional capacity to develop the legislation. Policy and legislation are typically focused on a wide array of areas and include mandates, incentives, and financing measures to promote efficiency. Standards and labelling for energy-efficient products are a primary regulatory measure used to promote energy efficiency in the region. Often called Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS), standards provide uniformity among energy uses for similar products, while labelling ensures that consumers have the necessary information available to assess the energy requirements of different product options. As of early 2014, standards and/or labelling requirements for a variety of products had been enacted or were in development in the majority of ECOWAS Member States. These have been utilised primarily for lighting as well as electrical appliances, such as air conditioners or refrigerators. As of early 2014, only two countries had formally adopted energy standards for electric products. Ghana established standards for CFLs and air conditioners in 2005.61 These standards were subsequently amended and expanded to include refrigeration equipment as well as mandating energy labelling for selected appliances.62 Ghana is now developing similar standards for LED lighting. Nigeria has established MEPS for self- ballasted lamps and CFLs.63 TABLE 18 | EEEP Energy Efficiency Targets Source: see endnote 56 for this section. xxi. As of the writing of this report, data were not available to confirm whether these targets have been met. xxii. Wood intensity of charcoal production is measured as the ratio of wood input to charcoal produced. POLICY AND TARGET OVERVIEW 04 Ensure universal access to safe, clean, affordable, efficient and sustainable cooking by 2030COOKING Adopt initial ECOWAS standards and labels for major energy equipment by end-2014STANDARDS AND LABELLING Develop and adopt ECOWAS standards for buildings (no target date set)BUILDING CODES Create instruments for financing by end-2013; establish regional sustainable energy fundFINANCING Phase out of incandescent bulbs by 2020LIGHTING Reduce losses to under 10% by 2020 from the current range of 15–40%ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION

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