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ECOWAS Status Report - Energy Efficiency

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY STATUS REPORT 2014 | 61 Although most regions of the world now acknowledge renewables as a viable contribution to the electricity sector, the role of renewable technologies and fuels in the heating, cooling, and transport sectors has not drawn as much attention. Renewable heating and cooling technologies, such as solar water heaters, can play a critical role in reducing the negative impacts of conventional energy use. For example, heating and cooling account for almost half of total global energy demand.44 Despite the tremendous potential and significant impacts that deployment of renewable heating and cooling technologies could have, these technologies are often under-represented in national development plans and strategies. Globally, while policies and targets for renewable heating and cooling are slowly being enacted, they lag far behind those being put in place in other sectors.45 Recognising the important role that renewable heating technologies can play in the future ECOWAS energy mix, ECOWAS member states have taken a leading role by setting targets for their deployment.46 (See Table 17.) OnlyafewECOWASMemberStateshavetargetsorpoliciesdirected at renewable heat. Sierra Leone is the sole ECOWAS Member State with an established target for the use of solar thermal technology. The country is targeting a 1% penetration of solar water heaters in hotels, guest houses, and restaurants by 2015, 2% by 2020, and 5% 2030, and has set a target of 1% penetration of solar water heaters in the residential sector by 2030.47 Nigeria’s Draft Renewable Energy Master plan includes a target for 150,000 solar water heaters installed by 2030.48 As with targets for renewable heating, few policies have been developed to promote the uptake of renewable energy in the heating and cooling sector. Both Ghana and Senegal have enacted mandates for the use of renewable heat.49 In addition to full tax incentives for solar electricity components, Ghana has instituted a 50% import tax reduction for solar water heaters.50 Renewable cooling has yet to receive strong attention from policymakers within the ECOWAS region. The transportation sector is also a significant consumer of energy but often receives less attention from policymakers. Transportation’s share of national energy use differs widely across the region. The use of biofuels can significantly reduce dependence on imported fuels and the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Although first-generation biofuels are cleaner burning and offer the potential to be a domestically sourced alternative to often-imported fossil fuels, they are increasingly coming under pressure due to the growing conflict between food and fuel crop production.51 Likewise, their use in the transportation sector is often challenged by the region’s lack of production capacity and by the use of biofuels in other sectors, such as electricity generation. TABLE 17 | EREP Solar Water Heating Targets Source: see endnote 56 for this section. POLICY AND TARGET OVERVIEW 04 Residential sector (new detached house price higher then EUR 75,000) District health centres, maternity clinics, school kitchens, and boarding schools Agro-food industries (pre-heating of process water) Hotels for hot, sanitary water 2020 - At least one system installed per house 2020 2020 2020 2030 - At least one system installed per house 2030 2030 2030 25% 10% 10% 25% 25% 50% SECTOR SPECIFIC TARGETS

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