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ECOWAS Status Report

| 50 fuel wood stoves, and small-scale manufacturing of solar cookers is also developing. Mali has initiated programmes to produce household fuels from biomass waste, as well as to promote household charcoal stoves. Nigeria has enacted several clean cook stove programmes, including the Rural Women Energy Security (RUWES) Project, designed to promote the adoption of clean cook stoves along with solar driers and other technologies for use by women in rural, off- grid communities.40 The National Clean Cooking Scheme (NCCS) component of the RUWES aims to distribute 20 million clean cook stoves throughout the country, working with women’s co- operatives to provide the stoves to households and to institutional firewood consumers such as schools and hospitals.41 In addition to programmes providing advanced cook stoves, a select group of ECOWAS Member States has developed testing facilities to assess different cook stove options. Testing facilities for analysing the energy efficiency and air pollutant output of different clean cook stove technologies now exist in Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal.42 Policies and financial incentives to promote energy efficiency in the cooking sector—often implemented in tandem with the programmes described above—are slowly gaining support from national policymakers. (See Chapter 4 for more information on the current policy landscape for cooking technologies.) ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN BUILDINGS Globally, buildings account for 30–40% of total final energy demand.43 They are also the largest sectoral consumers of electricity, at 42%.44 With a rapidly growing population, a rate of urbanisation of 3.5% per year (the highest in the developing world over the past two decades), and projected economic growth, the energy demand of buildings is projected to rise throughout Africa.45 Buildings house a wide array of energy consuming products, including lighting, heating and cooling, refrigeration, and electrical equipment. Well-designed and constructed buildings can significantly reduce energy use from current levels. Energy efficiency improvements for buildings typically fall under two main categories: improvements in building construction and improvements in building energy use through advanced equipment. Changes made under both categories can significantly reduce energy demand for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, and electricity consumption.46 Building construction improvements can be achieved through building design and the use of improved materials and new technologies, often aided by energy efficiency standards in building codes. End- use improvements can be made through technologies such as solar water heating, efficient lighting, and advanced appliances, in addition to the energy savings that can be achieved through behavioural change. Overall, building efficiency improvements can provide ancillary economic benefits which include increased property value and the reduction in expenditures for stand-alone diesel backup generators, which are often used to overcome load shedding and supply disruptions. Only three ECOWAS Member States have established domestic programmes for energy efficiency in the building sector, although similar efforts are under development elsewhere. These programmes focus predominantly on assessing the current energy use of buildings and increasing the uptake of efficiency in construction through the development of building codes. Benin has emerged as a leader on the introduction of building efficiency. The country’s Ministry of Energy and Water initiated a programme to design energy efficient building codes for use in administrative buildings, including offices, hospitals, schools, and military barracks.47 The programme analysed electricity and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and studied the impacts of various construction materials (insulation, lighting, etc.) to identify standards for reducing energy use. Benin has identified potential energy savings of 35% from the adoption of energy-efficient building codes.48 This programme has been used as the model for the development of the UEMOA voluntary codes. Additionally, the Laboratory for the Construction of Public Works (LBTP) in Côte d’Ivoire has carried out various activities assessing building energy use in the country.49 The Nigeria Energy Support Programme is conducting baseline studies for energy efficiency in building and is initiating pilot projects. Nigeria’s energy efficiency programme covers the formulation of an energy building code, the design of an energy efficiency catalogue, and the design and implementation of pilot projects in both the industrial and building sectors.50 In Senegal, the Parliament adopted initial legislation in 2008 and 2009 introducing energy efficiency requirements in building codes; however, they are awaiting Presidential Decrees before entering into force.51 Regionally, a number of initiatives have focused on awareness raising, capacity building and technical support. The ECOWAS Initiative on Energy Efficiency in Buildings has been developed to address the concern over inefficient building energy use in the region. The programme has identified several common challenges across the region, including poor awareness, a lack of trained workers and energy experts, and a lack of compliance, control, monitoring, and enforcement of energy efficiency activities.52 The programme aims to facilitate the dissemination of energy efficiency in the region through a targeted mix of technical improvements, the establishment of community energy efficiency funds, and marketing, education, and training programmes.53 UEMOA has also taken up the issue of building energy use at the regional level. UEMOA, with assistance from the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), initiated a programme in 2013 to develop a standardised model building code for use within its eight member countries.54 The voluntary code will target improvements in residential, commercial, and

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