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ECOWAS Status Report - Energy Efficiency in Buildings

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY STATUS REPORT 2014 | 49 In addition to the targeted distribution of CFLs, national strategies include capacity building and public outreach components designed to increase the use of efficient lighting. Energy-efficient lighting programmes feature a variety of stakeholders, both from the public and private sectors. While the national government often takes a leading role in the design and execution of these programmes, they are typically carried out in partnership with domestic or international actors. National programmes have been supported by domestic banks, such as the National Development Bank in Guinea, or national utilities, such as SENELEC in Senegal. Beyond household lighting, energy efficient streetlights can play a large role in reducing municipal lighting costs and improving quality of life for urban residents. Scaling up the use of efficient streetlights has been identified as a priority area by ECOWAS under the EEEP. Street lighting provides social benefits including increased safety and social cohesion, and increases economic opportunities. The costs associated with providing public lighting fall on the often limited budgets of municipal governments, a cost which can be reduced through more efficient solutions. Mali has taken a leading role in seeking to introduce this switch through a demonstration project aimed at installing 15,000 energy efficient street lamps across the country. International support has come from a variety of institutions. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has taken a leading role by implementing the UNEP-GEF en.lighten initiative in West Africa. En.lighten seeks to scale-up the global transition to energy- efficient lighting solutions through policy and strategy development, overseeing technical and quality issues, identifying and disseminating best practices, and facilitating stakeholder collaboration. This initiative, in collaboration with ECREEE, led to the development of the ECOWAS Regional Efficient Lighting Strategy and the Minimum Energy Performance Standards for Grid and Off-grid Lighting.26 A major initiative promoting the transition to efficient off-grid lighting in the ECOWAS region is LightingAfrica, a joint programme of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the World Bank that works with the private sector to build sustainable markets that provide safe, affordable, and modern off-grid lighting to communities in Africa that do not have access to electricity.27 To date, Lighting Africa and its stakeholders have provided close to 1.5 million people with improved lighting and energy access.28 In the ECOWAS region, the programme currently operates in Ghana, Mali, and Senegal.29 ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN COOKING The transition to energy-efficient cook stoves and cleaner cooking fuels is a critical component of the EREP. The use of advanced cook stoves can mitigate many of the negative health, environmental, and social impacts associated with the use of traditional biomass. Reliance on wood or charcoal for cooking contributes to forest degradation, results in an estimated 500,000 premature deaths from indoor air pollution annually in sub-Saharan Africa, and contributes to lost economic and educational opportunities for women and girls.30 In recent years, projects in the ECOWAS region have demonstrated many of the benefits of using energy-efficient stoves. These include cost, time, and fuel savings; easier and faster cooking; decreased smoke and the negative health impacts from indoor air pollution; and the reduced occurrence and risk of fires and burns. In the Gambia, the average cooking time for households using new, efficient stoves has been reduced from 2.39 hours to 1.31 hours, with the average monthly expenditures for cooking fuel reduced by about one-third.31 Similarly, fuel switching and introducing efficiency improvements to the production of fuel sources such as charcoal can further reduce the need for and impact of fuel use in the cooking sector. A variety of stove options now exist at various price points. The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves has mobilised support around the goal of providing clean cook stoves to 100 million households by 2020.32 Two of its eight prioritised focus countries—Ghana and Nigeria—are ECOWAS member states. The ECOWAS Initiative on Safe, Sustainable, and Affordable Cooking was initiated to ensure universal access to efficient, sustainable, and modern cooking fuels and devices by 2030.33 ECREEE launched the West African Clean Cooking Alliance (WACCA) in 2012 to support this vision through policy and regulatory design, capacity building, and technology promotion.34 Other initiatives in the region include the World Bank-led African Clean Cooking Energy Solution Initiative (ACCES), which aims to promote market- based, large scale dissemination of clean cooking solutions in sub- Saharan Africa.35 Clean cook stove programmes have often received support from the CDM. (For more on CDM programmes in the region, see Chapter 5.) Senegal’s renewable energy and rural electrification programme (PERACOD) includes a CDM-registered component to distribute 25,000 improved cook stoves.36 The Promoting Efficient Stove Dissemination and Use in West Africa programme was established to scale up the use of charcoal and fuel wood stoves in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Senegal, and Togo.37 Several national level programmes have been developed in ECOWAS countries. In the Gambia, the Energy Efficient Cooking Stove Project (REAGAM), implemented in 2013, trains youth, artisans, metal workers, and women to produce energy-efficient stoves; provides stoves to targeted communities at minimal costs, with proceeds going to stove producers; and creates consumer demand for the efficient stoves.38 Additionally, an estimated 900 households in the Gambia use solar cookers, and training programmes have been conducted in villages around the country.39 In Ghana, the government plans to further disseminate improved cook stoves while simultaneously increasing access to LPG for households and public institutions.The programme targets greater efficiency in the cooking sector, including reducing the average energy intensity of wood fuel in urban households and reducing the firewood intensity in rural households. Specific programmes have been enacted in Ghana to distribute efficient charcoal and ENERGY EFFICIENCY 03

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