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ECOWAS Status Report

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY STATUS REPORT 2014 | 47 ENERGY EFFICIENCY 03 For future infrastructure planning, decentralised renewables have the potential to mitigate losses by reducing the need for extensive transmission infrastructure. Particularly for currently un- electrified, dispersed communities, localised generation through renewable sources—either at the household or mini-grid scale— reduces the need to transmit centrally generated power across long transmission lines to reach consumers. This offers the opportunity for optimising the efficiency of delivery. PROMOTION OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING Globally, lighting accounts for 15% of total electricity consumption.14 Despite newer, more efficient alternatives, inefficient incandescent and halogen lamps remain a major source of lighting in ECOWAS member states. Eliminating the use of these lamps would have a significant impact on the region. Studies demonstrate that introducing energy-efficient lighting worldwide could save an estimated USD 140 billion per year in reduced energy costs.15 The SE4ALL initiative has identified energy- efficient lighting as one of its Energy Efficiency Accelerators, giving further impetus to the promotion of energy efficiency in the lighting sector.16 The transition to energy-efficient lighting is one of the most cost-effective ways to reduce electricity consumption during peak periods. Lighting is a significant energy consumer in the ECOWAS region; Nigeria estimates that up to 60% of peak load goes to lighting services.17 A region-wide switch to energy-efficient lighting therefore will have a significant impact on the energy sector as well as on the broader development priorities of ECOWAS Member States. ECREEE is spearheading this transition with development of the Regional Energy Efficient Lighting Strategy as well as the ECOWAS Regional Efficient Lighting Status Report. The complete phase- out of incandescent lamps by 2020 is expected to significantly reduce peak demand and to result in annual energy savings of some 2.43 Terawatt-hours, equal to 6.75% of the region’s annual consumption.xvi,18 These savings are enough to meet the annual electricity needs of an estimated 2.4 million households and will save the region more than USD 200 million per year.xvii Combining grid and off-grid lighting, the financial savings in the ECOWAS region are anticipated to be USD 4 billion.19 Electricity and cost savings for on- and off-grid consumers at the national level are estimated to be extensive. For rural consumers, efficient lighting provides significant savings over the current costs of kerosene, candles, and batteries.20 (See Figure 15.) As ECOWAS Member States seek to extend electricity coverage, the use of energy-efficient lighting offers the potential to reduce the volume of new capacity needed to supply demand in currently un-electrified regions. Yet the rate of adoption remains low. Global market penetration for efficient lighting technologies is estimated at 10–15%.21 Unfortunately, it is difficult to quantify the uptake of efficient lighting products in the ECOWAS region. TABLE 9 | Electricity Network Losses in Selected ECOWAS Member States Source: see endnote 6 for this section. xvi. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimates that replacing one million incandescent lamps in Africa with energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) could reduce peak demand by 50 MW and save 47 GWh per year, per UNEP, Regional Report on Efficient Lighting in Sub-Saharan African Countries (Nairobi: 2012), try-support/en.lighten_Sub-Saharan%20Report.pdf xvii. Estimate of 2.4 million households based on assumed consumption of 1,000 kWh/year. LOSSES AS SHARE OF TOTAL GENERATIONCOUNTRY Benin Cabo Verde Côte d’Ivoire The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Nigeria Senegal Togo 20.1% 26.1% 23.5% 17.3% 47% 21.7% 53% 23.58% > 50% 22% TARGET:UNDER10%BY2020

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