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ECOWAS Status Report - Promotion of Energy-Efficient Lighting

| 46 Through the development of National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAP), Member States’ national governments are playing a central role in meeting the goals expressed in the EEEP. This section describes the current status of energy efficiency in the Member States, and highlights those initiatives that have been developed to increase energy efficiency in the prioritised areas of lighting, cooking, electricity distribution, and buildings.xiv (See Chapter 4 for a discussion of specific energy efficiency policies and targets.) ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN ELECTRICITY SUPPLY Electricity losses vary across ECOWAS Member States—ranging from 15% to 50%.6 (See Table 9.) Although comprehensive and reliable data on system losses are limited, average losses across the region are estimated between 21.5% and 25%.7 In response, ECREEE has established the Alliance on High Performance Distribution of Electricity, with the goal of meeting the EEEP’s target of reducing network losses from 21.5% in 2010 to below 10% by 2020.8 By implementing efficiency improvements, the Alliance aims to free 2,000 MW of power generation capacity and help reduce suppressed demand.xv,9 Technical and non-technical losses in the region’s grid networks are a major barrier to further development of the energy sector. Technical losses often result from inefficient or undersized power transmission infrastructure. Non-technical (or commercial) losses include electricity theft from illegal connections as well as unpaid bills from connected consumers, including public entities.10 Lost revenue reduces the funding available to utilities to re-invest in the existing grid network, meaning that necessary upgrades or extensions go undeveloped. Increasing energy efficiency in electricity distribution is a clear priority for the ECOWAS region, although success has been limited to date. Despite the lack of formalised initiatives, ECREEE has identified two successful programmes in Ghana and Nigeria.These programmes include measures to reduce both technical and non-technical losses by improving and maintaining existing equipment, removing illegal connections, and optimising billing to increase cost recovery. In Ghana, the objective is to reduce system losses from 23.6% in 2012 to 18% by 2015 (9% technical, 9% commercial).11 In response, Ghana’s PURC set a target of 21% for the electricity distribution companies ECG and NEDCO and a target of 3.5% for the transmission utility GRIDCO.12 EGC has instituted an automated meter reading programme and has already installed 350,000 smart units in a further effort to reduce losses through meter tampering in Ghana. Additionally, the World Bank-supported Emergency Infrastructure Rehabilitation and Energy Project includes a component for Togo to rehabilitate distribution lines and networks in the country.13 FIGURE 14 | Energy Intensity of Final Energy in ECOWAS Member States, 2010 xiv. The ECOWAS Energy Efficiency Policy sets targets in six key areas: lighting, electricity distribution, cooking, standards and labelling, building codes, and financing. Standards and labelling as well as financing are discussed in Chapter 4. xv. Suppressed demand—or the inability to meet the desired demand of citizens for energy services—is due to unavailable or unaffordable energy options. 86 EnergyIntensity(MU/USD) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 Benin 10.7 3 Cabo Verde 12.4 Burkina Faso 6.6 Côte d’Ivoire 8.7 Ghana 5.6 TheGambia 21.9 Guinea ECOWAS average Guinea-Bissau 8 Liberia 71.1 Mali 7.7 Niger 7.3 Nigeria 12.9 Senegal 4.4 Sierra Leone 24.7 Togo 12.9 14.5

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