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ECOWAS Status Report

| 32 FIGURE 9 | Penetration of Clean Cook Stoves Source: see endnote 8 for this section. Significant population shares in Cabo Verde (62.5%), Senegal (41.1%), Côte d’Ivoire (13.7%), and Ghana (10.4%) rely on gas— primarily liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which—although not renewable—has significant environmental benefits over wood and charcoal. In Senegal, the expanded use of LPG—particularly in urban centres—is estimated to have reduced annual consumption of wood fuel and charcoal by 70,000 and 90,000 tonnes respectively.10 Very few people in the region rely on electricity for cooking; Guinea-Bissau has the highest rate of electricity use for cooking at just 0.6%.11 This reflects challenges related to both access and cost; even in electrified households, electricity is not often an economically feasible option for cooking. For example, in the Gambia, households report that cooking with electricity is too expensive, whereas wood and charcoal are relatively cheap and widely available.12 Manyhouseholdsthatrelyprimarilyononeenergysourceforcooking may also be using additional fuels to supplement or complement their supply. Examining the primary fuel used for cooking fails to capture the complex and widespread practice of “fuel stacking,” or the parallel use of multiple fuels and types of cook stoves.13 In the ECOWAS region, consumption of traditional energy resources often co-exists with use of modern energy technologies and practices. For example, IRENA notes that in both the Gambia and Niger, even relatively high-income households often use a mix of traditional biomass, kerosene, and LPG.14 Examining rates of solid fuel use also fails to capture improvements in modern cooking solutions such as stoves that use modern biomass or that consume traditional solid fuels more efficiently. RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE POWER SECTOR ECREEE, in partnership with Member State governments, has emphasised renewable energy deployment as a way to improve the region’s power sector and expand electricity access.15 To date, conventional grid systems have supplied most of the region’s electricity, although the considerable challenges they face (see Chapter 1) make it increasingly apparent that distributed systems, including mini-grids and stand-alone technologies, will play a significant role in achieving the region’s energy goals.viii The region’s grid expansion plans being developed through the WAPP will have a significant impact on the region’s ability to scale-up grid connected renewable power (see Sidebar 1.) Renewable energy technologies currently account for an estimated 28.8% of the region’s total grid-connected installed capacity.16 Hydropower has been used widely to generate electricity in the region for decades and represents more than 99% of existing renewable capacity.17 Installed capacity of grid-connected non- hydro renewables (wind, solar, and modern biomass) is just 39 MW and is concentrated mainly in Cabo Verde and Ghana, which have emerged as early leaders in the region.18 (See Table 5.) While significant off-grid capacity has been added in recent years across a range of renewable technologies—particularly solar PV (See Figure 13)—consistent and reliable data across the entire region is not available and, therefore, these figures have been separated from the grid-connected figure presented here. Renewable energy deployment in the power sector is likely to increase in coming years, supported by the renewable power targets and support policies being implemented by most Member States, ECREEE’s ongoing efforts to streamline policymaking (see Chapter 4), and the growing number of renewable energy projects in development. viii. The scope of this report does not consider the region’s technical capacity to implement new renewable projects or scale-up related activities; instead, it aims to provide an overview of what has been implemented to date. Burkina Faso Côte d’Ivoire The Gambia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo 16.09.0 20.0 10.06.0 6.0 6.0 3.02.1 COOK STOVES USING IMPROVED BIOMASS POPULATION (%) 10.06.06.06.03.02.1

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