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ECOWAS Status Report

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY STATUS REPORT 2014 | 21 In 2011, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for almost half (47.6%) of all people without access to electricity.25 (See Figure 3.) Within ECOWAS, national electricity access rates vary widely, from Niger which had an electrification rate of just 9% in 2011, to Cabo Verde, which is approaching nearly universal access.26 (See Figure 4.) National rates mask wide disparities between access in rural versus urban areas. In many ECOWAS Member States, major power grids provide service only to major cities, leaving rural and peri-urban areas unelectrified. Globally, about 85% of those without electricity access live in rural areas; within ECOWAS, the estimated share of rural populations with access to electricity ranges from 70% in Cabo Verde to just 1% in Guinea and Sierra Leone.27 (See Figure 4.) FIGURE 2 | Share of Traditional Biomass in Total Final Energy Consumption, 2010 Source: SE4ALL REGIONAL INTRODUCTION 01 TABLE 2 | GDP per Capita and Share of Final Energy Consumption by Sector in Selected ECOWAS Member States Note: The consumption data compiled for this table reflect a variety of methodologies and years; GDP per capita is also an imperfect measure of economic development. However, the comparison made here can be used to illustrate the links between regional disparities in energy consumption and economy. Source: see endnote 15 for this section. Nigeria (2011) Ghana (2012)Guinea-Bissau (2010)Niger (2012) Household GDP per CAPITA (USD) 800 90 8 2 — 89 8 2 1 80.1 7.5 11.9 0.5 38.8 38.9 18.8 3.5 1,200 2,800 3,500 Share of Final Energy Consumption by Sector (%) Transport Industry Other Population Population Urban Annual Rate of GDP per 1 7.1 41 41.5 42.9 44.1 52.2 64.3 65.7 71 79.6 84.1 85.4 87.3 92.5 Share(%) Liberia Guinea Mali Nigeria Niger Togo Ghana Benin Senegal TheGambia Guinea -Bissau Cabo Verde Sierra Leone Côte d’Ivoire Burkina Faso In the lead-up to developing the ECOWAS Renewable Energy Policy, ECREEE identified several major interrelated energy challenges facing the region including energy access, energy security, impacts on human health and the environment, and climate change.19 Each of these plays a major role in shaping the regional energy situation, and policy frameworks and investment must take them into account. Factors including policy and regulatory mechanisms (Chapter 4), technical capacity, and access to commercial and concessional finance (Chapter 5) affect countries’ abilities to address these challenges. Energy Access Expanding access to modern energy services, including clean cooking fuels and electricity, is an enormous and urgent priority for the ECOWAS region. The United Nations’ Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative reports that sub-Saharan Africa was the only region in the world where the rate of progress in expanding access to electricity and non-solid fuels fell behind population growth between 1990 and 2010.20 The ECOWAS region’s total final energy consumption (TFEC) reached approximately 5,687 petajoules in 2010, accounting for about 35% of the sub-Saharan total.21 Across the region, traditional biomass resources such as wood and charcoal play a central role in fulfilling basic energy needs. In 2010, traditional biomass accounted for more than half of TFEC in nine Member States.22 (See Figure 2.) Households in particular depend heavily on these resources. In the Gambia, for example, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) estimates that traditional biomassaccountsfor90%ofhouseholdenergyconsumption(rising to 97% in some rural areas).23 In Côte d’Ivoire, wood and charcoal account for about 70% of household energy consumption.24 REGIONALENERGYCHALENGES 1,2002,8003,500

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