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REN21 10 Years Report - Endnotes

43 Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Frankfurt School (FS), Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment, various years. BMU – Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen. July 2013 BMWi – ee-2013,property=pdf,bereich=bmwi2012,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf Clean Energy Council, Clean Energy Australia Report 2013 Energy-in-New Zealand www.Energy-in-New-Zealand-2013.pdf EPIA – Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaic 2013 – 2017, European Photovoltaic Industry Association, Renewable Energy House, Rue d’Arlon 63-67, 1040 Brussels – Belgium ESTELA, European Solar Thermal Electricity Association, Rue d’Arlon, 63-67, B – 1040 – Brussels Eurostat EN/8-10032014-AP-EN.PDF IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2014 IEA World Energy Outlook 2005 WEO2005.pdf IEA World Energy Outlook 2006 WEO2006.pdf IEA World Energy Outlook 2013 International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Renewable Energy Jobs & Access (Abu Dhabi 2013) Table 5: Employment Factors by Technology Numbers drawn from: Hydro (large): Employment factors are from a US study (Navigant Consulting, 2009). Wind onshore: The installation factor used is from the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA). The manufacturing factor is derived using the employ- ment per MW in turbine manufacture at Vestas from 2007 to 2011 (Vestas, 2011), adjusted for total manufacturing using the ratio used by the EWEA (European Wind Energy Association, 2009). For further detail, see Rutovitz & Harris, 2012a. Wind offshore: All factors are from a German report (Price Waterhouse Coopers, 2012). Solar PV: The Solar PV employment factors are all from the JEDI model (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2011) Geothermal: The construction and installation, and O&M factor is derived from a study conducted by Sinclair Knight Merz (2005). The O&M factors are the weighted averages from employment data reported for thirteen power stations totalling 1050 MW in the US, Canada, Greece and Australia (some of them hypothetical). The manufacturing factor is derived from a US study (Geothermal Energy Association, 2010). Solar thermal power: Construction and O&M jobs were derived from a weighted average of eight reported power plants (1512 MW) in the US (Rutovitz & Harris, 2012a). The manufacturing factor came from the European Renewable Energy Council, 2008, page 16. Ocean: The construction factor used in this study is a combined projection for wave and tidal power derived from data for offshore wind power (Batten & Bahaj, 2007). A study of a particular wave power technology, Wave Dragon, provided jobs creation potential for that technology, and the O&M factor used here is based on that report (Soerensen, 2008). Geothermal and heat pumps: One overall factor has been used for jobs per MW installed. This is derived from analysis of a US industry survey in 2012, which reported 9,088 total jobs in 2012, including 2,611 manufacturing jobs (Battocletti & Glassley, 2012). Shipments of heat pumps during that year came to 1,314 MW. Solar thermal heating: One overall factor has been used for jobs per MW installed, as this was the only data available on any large scale. This may underestimate jobs, as it may not include O&M. The global figure comes is derived from the IEA heating and cooling program report (Weiss &Mauthner, 2011). Bioenergy: Employment factors for construction, manufacturing and O&M use the average values of studies from Greece, the UK, Spain, USA, and Europe wide (Kjaer, 2006; Moreno & López, 2008; Thornley, 2006; Thornley et al., 2009; Thornley, Rogers, & Huang, 2008; Tourkolias & Mirasgedis, 2011). Fuel employment per PJ primary energy is derived from five studies (Domac, Richards, & Risovic, 2005; EPRI, 2001; Hillring, 2002; Thornley, 2006; Upham & Speakman, 2007; Valente, Spinelli, & Hillring, 2011). Figure 9: Range in Recent Levelised Costs Numbers drawn from: IPCC SRREN, Renewable Energy potential analysis: Technical renewable energy potentials reported here represent total world- wide and regional potentials based on a review of studies published before 2009 by Krewitt et al. (2009). They do not deduct any potential that is already being utilised for energy production. Due to methodological differences and accounting methods among studies, strict comparability of these estimates across technologies and regions, as well as to primary energy demand, is not possible. Technical RE potential analyses published after 2009 show higher results in some cases but are not included in this figure. However, some RE technologies may compete for land which could lower the overall RE poten- tial; also consulted: IRENA, Power-Generation-Costs-in-2012.pdf Endnotes Unless otherwise referenced, all data in this publication have been taken from REN21 documents— notably its Renewables Global Status Report series and its Global Futures Report—copies of which can be found at: and respectively.

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