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REN21 10 Years Report

21 1. GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS The increased market for renewable energy deployment reduced greenhouse gas as well as dust emissions throughout Germany. Table 6 shows specific emission reductions. The values relate to the current energy mix and thus will vary according to mix and country. Based on the numbers in Table 6 the overall greenhouse gas emission reductions add up to 148 million tons for 2012. The bio- mass sector offered the largest percentage share of CO2 off-set, reducing 40% of 148 million tons CO2 equivalent in 2013. The wind and solar PV sectors each saved an equivalent of 28 and 16% of greenhouse gas emissions respectively. Hydropower, biofuels, solar thermal, and geothermal heating collectively saved 17%. 2. FOSSIL FUEL SAVINGS Usingrenewableenergysourceforpowergeneration,heatsupply or as a transport fuel reduces fossil fuel demand and—in an energy resource poor country like Germany—decreases imports of fossil fuel. In 2012 alone, over 40 million tons of coal, 12 billion cubic meter of gas and 8 million liters of oil, diesel and gasoline were saved. 3. FOSSIL FUEL IMPORT COSTS Germany imports most of its oil, gas and coal. With the increased penetration of renewable energy the overall cost for imported fossil fuels decreased steadily over the past decade. In 2011 avoided fossil fuel imports totaled Euro 6.6 billion, with the greatest savings in the power sector. By 2012, the fossil fuel cost savings were just over Euro 10 billion with the heating sector sur- passing the power sector by Euro 1 billon. 4. COST OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Germany’s pioneering role in the development and deployment of renewable energy technologies led to a global drop in costs. Cost for renewable energy technologies—onshore wind, solar collectors, bioenergy—decreased significantly. Solar photo- voltaic module prices decreased by one order of magnitude; prices in 1980 were an average of USD 30/Wpeak dropping 97% to UScent 90/Wpeak in 2013. (See Figure 10.) In Germany, cost reductions were achieved primarily due to the Feed-in Law. 5. INVESTMENTS IN NEW TECHNOLOGIES Increased investment in new renewables translates into new jobs in the renewable energy industry. According to the German government, the overall investment in 2012 renewable energy technologies was Euro 19.5 billion. Germany was one of the “first mover countries” that developed and implemented renewable power generation, especially in onshore wind and solar photovoltaic. Between 2000 and 2013, the Ministry for Environment undertook a detailed and unique effort to document the effects of the implementation of renewable energy sources. This section summarises the five key benefits of the German Energiewende, the German word for Energy Transition. BENEFITS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY: CASE STUDY OF GERMANY Figure 10: Development of Solar Photovoltaic Module Prices, 1980 – 2013 Power Heat Transport Total 2011 2.5 3.3 0.8 6.6 2012 3.9 4.9 1.2 10 Table 7: Avoided fuel imports (in billion €) Source: BMU 2013. Reference see endnotes. 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 US$/Wpeek $$$ $$$ -97% 1980 – 2013 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 US$/Wpeek $$$ $$$ -97% 1980 – 2013 Green House Gas Emissions Fossil Fuel Savings Fossil Fuel Import Costs Costs of Renewable Energy Investments in New Technologies Greenhouse House Gases Power Generation Replacement Factor [g/kWh] Heat Supply Replacement Factor [g/kWh] Biofuels Replacement Factor [g/kWh] CO2 708 275 210 CH4 0.52 0.03 (– 0.26) N2O (– 0.06) (– 0.02) (– 0.16) CO2 Equivalent 710 271 154 Table 6: Specific Emission Reduction from Renewable Energy Sources in Germany Source: BMU 2013. Reference see endnotes. 20112.53.30.86.6 20123.94.91.210 19801985199019952000200520102015 19801985199019952000200520102015 CO2 708275210 CH4 0.520.03 (– 0.26) 710271154

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