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REN21 10 Years Report

2 Power Generation Markets Existing renewable power capacity worldwide reached an estimated 1,230 gigawatts (GW) in 2009, up 7 percent from 2008. Renewable energy now comprises about a quarter of global power-generating capacity (estimated at 4,800 GW in 2009) and supplies some 18 percent of global electricity production.4 (See Figure 3.) When large-scale hydropower is not included, renewables reached a total of 305 GW, a 22-percent increase over 2008.5 (See Figure 4 and Table R4.) Among all renewables, global wind power capacity increased the most in 2009, by 38 GW. Hydro- power has been growing annually by about 30 GW in recent years, and solar PV capacity increased by more than 7 GW in 2009. The top five countries for ren 2009, including small hydrop States, Germany, Spain, and I are included, the top countrie were China, the United State In the European Union, renew than 60 percent of newly ins and in the United States, win source of new capacity addit mated 37 GW of grid-conne 2009, for a total of 226 GW. Wind Power Despite the global economic capacity installations in 2009 GW. This represented a 41-p brought the global total to 1 Table R2.) Over the five-year annual growth rates for cum averaged 27 percent. The cap equivalent to nearly a quarte and cumulative capacity has years. China was the top installer in one-third of the world marke son, China accounted for onl ket in 2004, when annual glo over 8 GW.10 China's installed nearly three times the countr 2009, with just over 13.8 GW 25.8 GW.11 This means that C power capacity for the fifth y The United States added just capacity in 2009, enabling it capacity with a total of 35 G U.S. states had more than 1 Texas remained the leader w tive capacity, enabling the sta able energy target 15 years e Germany continued to lead i adding 1.9 GW and ending t with a total installed capacity topped the European market 2.5 GW. Other major Europea and the United Kingdom, all each.16 India added 1.3 GW t tion for existing capacity.17 Canada experienced a record (MW), and for the first time a territories) were generating e 15 percent in 2008 to reach an estimated 145 gigawatts- thermal (GWth), or double the capacity in 2004. (All figure exclude unglazed swimming pool heating.) China installed three-quarters of global added capacity (14 GWth) and remained the world leader, with more than 70 percent of existing global capacity. (See Figures 5 and 6 and Table R5 Solar hot water in Germany set record growth in 2008, with over 200,000 systems installed for an increase of 1.5 GWth in capacity. Spain also saw rapid growth, and the re of Europe besides Germany added about 0.5 GWth of ne capacity. Among developing countries, Brazil, India, Mexic Morocco, Tunisia, and others saw an acceleration of solar hot water installations.9 Geothermal (ground source) heat pumps accounted for a estimated 30 GWth of installed capacity by the end of 2008, with other direct uses of geothermal heat (i.e., for space and greenhouse heating, agricultural drying, industr al, and other uses) reaching an estimated 15 GWth. At lea 76 countries use direct geothermal energy in some form.1 POLICY LANDSCAPE RENEWABLES 2005 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT PAGE 23 to Australia’s national target of 9,500 GWh by 2010. The United Kingdom’s RPS (2002) will lead to 10 percent by 2010 and then to 15 percent by 2015, continuing to 2027. Japan’s RPS (2003) also requires a certain percentage from utilities, which increases over time to reach 1.35 percent by 2010. Sweden’s RPS (2003) requires consumers, or electricity suppliers on their behalf, to pur- chase a given annual percentage, which increases yearly, through either electricity purchases or renewable certificate purchases. (Sweden sets penalties for non- compliance at 150 percent of the average certificate price of the prior period.) Poland’s RPS (2004) will reach 7.5 percent by 2010. Thailand’s RPS (2004) requires that 5 percent of all additional future generation capacity be renewables.* There are many other forms of policy support for renewable power generation, including direct capital investment subsidies or rebates, tax incentives and credits, sales tax and VAT exemptions, direct production payments or tax credits (i.e., per kWh), green certificate trading, net metering, direct public investment or financ- ing, and public competitive bid- ding for specified quantities of power generation. (See Table 4, p. 21.) Some type of direct capital investment subsidy, grant, or rebate is offered in at least 30 countries. Tax incentives and credits are also common ways of providing financial support. Most U.S. states and at least 32 other countries offer a variety of tax incentives and credits for renew- able energy. Energy production payments or tax credits exist in several coun- tries, with the U.S. federal produc- tion tax credit most significant in this category. That credit has applied to more than 5,400 MW of wind power installed from 1995 to 2004. Indexed to inflation, that credit started at 1.5 cents/kWh in 1994 and increased over time, through sev- eral expirations and renewals, to 1.9 cents/kWh by 2005, with expiration extended to 2007. The production tax credit has helped to make wind power a “mainstream” Table 5. Cumulative Number of Countries/States/Provinces Enacting Feed-in Policies Year Cumulative Number Countries/States/Provinces Added That Year 1978 1 United States 1990 2 Germany 1991 3 Switzerland 1992 4 Italy 1993 6 Denmark, India 1994 8 Spain, Greece 1995 8 1996 8 1997 9 Sri Lanka 1998 10 Sweden 1999 13 Portugal, Norway, Slovenia 2000 14 Thailand 2001 16 France, Latvia 2002 20 Austria, Brazil, Czech Republic, Indonesia, Lithuania 2003 27 Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Korea, Slovak Republic, Maharashtra (India) 2004 33 Italy, Israel, Nicaragua, Prince Edward Island (Canada), Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh (India) 2005 37 Turkey, Washington (USA), Ireland, China Note: Figure for 2005 is for first half of the year only. Table 6. Cumulative Number of Countries/States/Provinces Enacting RPS Policies Year Cumulative Number Countries/States/Provinces Added 1997 1 Massachusetts (USA) 1998 3 Connecticut, Wisconsin (USA) 1999 7 Maine, New Jersey, Texas (USA); Italy 2001 12 Arizona, Hawaii, Nevada (USA); Flanders (Belgium); Australia 2002 16 California, New Mexico (USA); Wallonia (Belgium); United Kingdom 2003 20 Minnesota (USA); Japan; Sweden; Maharashtra (India) 2004 34 Colorado, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island (USA); Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island (Canada); Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa (India); Poland; Thailand 2005 38 District of Columbia, Montana, Delaware (USA); Gujarat (India) * National targets from Table 3 and Figure 11 may be considered “binding,”“planning,” or “indicative” targets, but do not imply national RPS policies, which are legal mandates on specific classes of utility companies or consumers. dlroWfotseR 48% Rest of World 26% Turkey 7% Vietnam 6% Russia 3% Brazil 6% Figure 9. hydropower global CapaCity, shares oF top hydropower Figure 10. hydropower global net CapaCity additions, 36 02 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS BY TECHNOLOGY – HYDROpOwER Vietnam added at least 1.8 GW of new capacity in 2012 to raise its total capacity to 12.9 GW. A significant portion of this increase was attributable to Vietnam’s Son La plant. The final two 400 MW turbines were installed to complete the 2.4 GW project, reportedly the largest hydropower project in Southeast Asia.20 In Russia, three 333 MW units at its Boguchanskaya hydro- power plant were commissioned in late 2012 and one in early 2013, maintaining the country’s total operating capacity at 46 GW.21 Following a catastrophic accident in 2009, the 6.4 GW Sayano-Shushenskaya plant, the country’s largest hydropower facility, is under continuing repairs that will see 10 new turbines installed by 2014.22 In all, at least 3.4 GW of capacity was in- stalled during 2012, although net capacity additions were lower.23 Elsewhere, Mexico brought its 750 MW La Yesca hydropower plant into full operation in late 2012 for a country total of 11.5 GW crete-fac commiss and Hyd powerho Sarcelle of hydrop small-sc In Africa Ethiopia 2013. W and to be To ensur exported sion proj link was Source: See Endnote 2 for this section. Source: See Endnote 5 for this section. Kingdom, and in some developing countries. An estimated 45 GW of biomass power capacity existed in 2006. The United Kingdom has seen recent growth in “co-firing” (burning small shares of biomass in coal-fired power plants). The use of biomass for district heating and com- bined heat-and-power (CHP) has been expanding in Aus- tria, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the Baltic countries, and provides substantial shares (5–50 percent) of district heating fuel. Among developing countries, small-scale power and heat production from agricultural waste is com- mon, for example from rice or coconut husks. The use of bagasse (sugar cane after juice extraction) for power and heat production is significant in countries with a large sugar industry, including Australia, Brazil, China, Colombia, Cuba, India, the Philippines, and Thailand. Biomass pellets have become more common, with about 6 million tons con- sumed in Europe in 2005, about half for residential heating and half for power generation (often in small-scale CHP plants). The main European countries employing pellets are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Although a global division of biomass consumption for heat- ing versus power is not available, in Europe two- thirds of biomass is used for heating.6 Geothermal provides almost 10 GW of power capacity, growing at roughly 2–3 percent per year. Most of this is in Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, and the United States, with additional capacity in several other countries. Iceland gets one-quarter of all its power from geothermal.7 Grid-connected solar photovoltaics (PV) con- tinues to be the fastest-growing power generation technology in the world, with 50 percent annual increases in cumulative installed capacity in both 2006 and 2007, to an estimated 7.8 GW by the end of 2007. (See Figure 6.) This capacity translates into an estimated 1.5 million homes with rooftop solar PV feeding into the grid worldwide. Ger- many accounted for half the global market in 2006, with on the order of 850–1,000 GW added. Grid-connected solar PV increased by about 300 MW in Japan, 100 MW in the United States, and 100 MW in Spain in 2006. (See Table R3, page 38.) The Spanish solar PV market grew the fastest of any country during 2007, in part due to new and revised policies, and an estimated 400 MW was added in 2007, a fourfold increase over 2006 addi- tions. Emerging strong growth in other European countries, especially Italy and Greece with the recent introductions of policies, is also changing the balance. France’s recently revised feed-in poli- cies are beginning to accelerate what had been slow growth. Italy looked set to install 20 MW in 2007 and France 15 MW, both double the 2006 installation amounts. In the United States, California remains the clear leader, after capturing 70 percent of the U.S. market in 2006. New Jersey is second, with other emerging markets in sev- eral southwestern and eastern states. Korea is also emerging as a strong market.8 Most solar PV installations are just a few kilowatts (kW) or tens of kilowatts in size. These include more and more “building-integrated” PV (BIPV), which has begun to capture the attention of the mainstream architecture com- munity. In addition, the growth of large-scale solar PV installations accelerated during 2006/2007, including scales of hundreds of kilowatts and megawatts. One well-known example was Google’s installation of a 1.6 MW array at its head office in California. And the 14 MW Nellis Air Force Base plant in Nevada recently became the largest solar PV plant in the United States. Spain now hosts the world’s two largest solar PV power plants, at 20 MW each, in the cities of Figure 9. Solar Hot Water/Heating Capacity Added, Selected Countries, 2006 Turkey 2.7% India 1.9% Brazil 1.5% Australia 0.8% Japan 0.8% Israel 1.2% United States 0.4% Other 3.9% Figure 5. Wind Power Capacity, Top 10 Countries, 2006 Megawatts Added in 2006 Added in 2005 Added in 2004 Germany Spain UnitedStates United Kingdom Denmark India China France Italy Portugal Figure 7. Renewable Power Capacities, Developing World, EU, and Top Six Countries, 2006 JapanSpain IndiaUnited States GermanyChinaEU-25Developing World World Gigawatts 0 60 120 240 180 Solar PV (grid) Geothermal Biomass Wind Small hydro 0 6,000 12,000 18,000 24,000 Note: excludes large hydropower Total added =18 gigawatts thermal Figure 8. Solar Hot Water/Heating Capacity Existing, Selected Countries, 2006 Turkey 6.3% Japan 4.5% Israel 3.6% Brazil 2.1% United States 1.7% Australia 1.2% India 1.1% South Africa 0.2% Other 1.9% Total = 105 gigawatts-thermal EU 11.6% China 75.3% China 64.5% EU 12.8% Figure 9. Solar Hot Water/Heating Capacity Added, Selected Countries, 2006 1995 1997 1999 20032001 2005 2007 (est.) 40 100 80 60 20 0 Turkey 2.7% India 1.9% Brazil 1.5% Australia 0.8% Japan 0.8% Israel 1.2% United States 0.4% Other 3.9% Figure 5. Wind Power Capacity, Top 10 Countries, 2006 Megawatts Added in 2006 Added in 2005 Added in 2004 Germany Spain UnitedStates United Kingdom Denmark India China France Italy Portugal Figure 4. Wind Power, Existing World Capacity, 1995–2007 0 Gigawatts Figure 7. Renewable Power Capacities, Developing World, EU, and Top Six Countries, 2006 JapanSpain IndiaUnited States GermanyChinaEU-25Developing World World Gigawatts 0 60 120 240 180 Solar PV (grid) Geothermal Biomass Wind Small hydro 0 6,000 12,000 18,000 24,000 Note: excludes large hydropower Total added =18 gigawatts thermal Figure 8. Solar Hot Water/Heating Capacity Existing, Selected Countries, 2006 Turkey 6.3% Japan 4.5% Israel 3.6% Brazil 2.1% United States 1.7% Australia 1.2% India 1.1% South Africa 0.2% Other 1.9% Total = 105 gigawatts-thermal Figure 6. Solar PV, Existing World Capacity, 1995–2007 6,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 4,000 2,000 0 Megawatts Total Grid- connected Off-grid 1995 1997 1999 20032001 2005 2007 (est.) EU 11.6% China 75.3% China 64.5% EU 12.8% bal MaRkeT OVeRVIew are not readily available to provide a global ranking for categories such as increased share of electricity from renewables or per capita consumption, although these would be valuable measurements of progress. In the United States, renewable energy accounted for an estimated 25% of electric capacity additions in 2010 and 11.6% of existing electric capacity at year’s end; during the year, renewables provided just over 10.3% of total domestic electricity.9 Further, renewables accounted for about 10.9% of U.S. domestic primary energy production (compared with nuclear’s 11.3% share), an increase of 5.6% relative to 2009.10 China led the world in the installation of wind turbines and solar thermal systems and was the top hydropower producer in 2010. The country added an estimated 29 Solar PV Solar PV (grid-connected only) Wind power Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Geothermal power Hydropower Solar hot water/heating Ethanol production Biodiesel production 49% 60% 81% 27% 25% 25% 77%77% 4% 3% 3% 3% 16%16% 23% 17%17% 16%16% 38%38% 7% 72% 2010 only end 2005–2010 Five-Year Period gure 2. average annual Growth Rates of Renewable energy Capacity and biofuels Production, 2005–2010 Fossil fuel 67.6% Nuclear 13% Hydro- 16.1% power Other 3.3% Renewables (non-hydro) gure 3. Renewable energy Share of Global electricity Production, 2010 RENEWABLES GLOBAL STATUS REPORT | 2009 Update 9 ATORS AND TOP FIVE COUNTRIES RS 2006 © 2007 © 2008 wable capacity (annual)1 63 © 104 © 120 billion USD acity (existing, excl. large hydro) 207 © 240 © 280 GW acity (existing, incl. large hydro) 1,020 © 1,070 © 1,140 GW xisting) 74 © 94 © 121 GW V capacity (existing) 5.1 © 7.5 © 13 GW nual) 2.5 © 3.7 © 6.9 GW (existing) 105 © 126 © 145 GWth ual) 39 © 50 © 67 billion liters nual) 6 © 9 © 12 billion liters rgets 66 © 73 es with feed-in policies2 49 © 63 es with RPS policies 44 © 49 es with biofuels mandates 53 © 55 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 2008 nt1 United States Spain China Germany Brazil United States China India Germany Spain nnected)3 Spain Germany United States South Korea Japan Italy ded4 China Turkey Germany Brazil France United States Brazil China France Canada Germany United States France Argentina Brazil f end-2008 acity China United States Germany Spain India China Japan United States Italy Brazil United States Germany Spain China India United States Brazil Philippines Germany Sweden Finland United States Philippines Indonesia Mexico Italy d) Germany Spain Japan United States South Korea China Turkey Germany Japan Israel s methods changed with this report, so data series are not compatible with prior-year reports; see Endnote 13. 2Feed-in includes early 2009. 3Conflicting estimates for solar PV added in 2008 in South Korea and Italy as of press time make it countries beyond Spain and Germany, as the next four countries are all in the range of 200–300 MW added; see notes ter/heating numbers are for 2007. Many figures in the above table and throughout the report are rounded to two signifi- may not exactly reflect underlying data due to rounding. 20:01 Uhr Seite 9 __20112011 RenewableS 2011 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT Source: See Endnote 2 for this section. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Gigawatts 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 100 40 71 24 16 1075.44.02.82.21.81.41.20.90.80.70.6 Figure 11. solar pv global CapaCity, 1995–2012 solar photovoltaiCs (pv) RENEWABLES 2005 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT Paper prepared for the REN21 Network by The Worldwatch Institute Lead Author: Eric Martinot www.ren21.net 2006 2009 2010 19781 United States 19902 Germany 19913 Switzerland 19924 Italy 19936 Denmark, India 19948 Spain, Greece 19958 19968 19979 Sri Lanka 199810 Sweden 199913 Portugal, Norway, Slovenia 200014 Thailand 200116 France, Latvia 200220 Austria, Brazil, Czech Republic, Indonesia, Lithuania 200327 Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Korea, Slovak Republic, 200433 Italy, Israel, Nicaragua, Prince Edward Island (Canada), 200537 Turkey, Washington (USA), Ireland, China 19971 Massachusetts (USA) 19983 Connecticut, Wisconsin (USA) 19997 Maine, New Jersey, Texas (USA); Italy 200112 Arizona, Hawaii, Nevada (USA); Flanders (Belgium); 200216 California, New Mexico (USA); Wallonia (Belgium); 200320 Minnesota (USA); Japan; Sweden; Maharashtra (India) 200434 Colorado, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode 200538 District of Columbia, Montana, Delaware (USA); 1995199719992003200120052007 1995199719992003200120052007 wable capacity (annual)163 © 104 © 120 billion USD 199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012

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