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REN21 10 Years Report

19 and maintenance of small solar PV panels in rural Bangladesh provide livelihoods directly for as many as 70,000 people with another 80,000 employed indirectly. Over the past decade there has been a noteworthy shift along segments of the value chain, moving from manufacturing to installation and maintenance. Renewable Energy Jobs by Technology Each stage of the value chain—from planning and financing to installation, from operation to maintenance and renewable elec- tricity sales and grid management—involves many different jobs. However the past decade showed that each technology has its own typical employment requirements. Table 5 provides an over- view how many jobs are created by technology and by skill set. Rapid Decrease of Cost of Renewable Energy Technologies The improved competitiveness of renewables is being driven by a virtuous circle in which the rapid deployment of renewables, encouraged by support policies to overcome barriers to their use, is leading to significant and rapid reductions in cost for many renewable technologies. Solar PV costs are declining rapidly due to high learning rates for PV modules and the current rapid deployment; costs for solar photovoltaic generators declined by around 50% between 2010 and 2014. If these trends continue, grid parity with residential electricity tariffs will soon be the norm in many countries, rather than the exception. Wind power is now one of the most competitive renewable technologies and, in developed countries with good wind resources, onshore wind is often competitive with fossil fuel- fired generation. The wind turbine prices fell in the 1990s and remained steady over the past approx. 10 years. However the average capacity factor steadily grew over the past decade. More efficient turbines generate more electricity per turbine leading to an overall reduction of generation costs. CSP is increasingly being deployed at scale and costs are com- ing down. Solar towers are emerging as a particularly important generation option in areas with high direct solar irradiation, while CSP systems can also help with the integration of variable Table 5: Employment Factors by Technology Construction Times Construction + Installation Manufacturing Operation + Maintenance Fuel Supply Years Job years / MW Job years / MW Jobs / MW Jobs / PJ Hydro Power 2 6.0 1.5 0.1 Wind onshore 2 2.5 6.1 0.2 Wind offshore 4 7.1 10.7 0.2 Solar PV 1 9.0 11.0 0.2 Geothermal 2 6.8 3.9 0.4 Solar thermal 2 5.3 4.0 0.4 Ocean 2 9.0 1.0 0.3 Geothermal – heat 6.9 Solar – heat 7.4 Biomass 2 14.0 2.9 1.5 32.2 Biomass CHP 15.5 2.9 1.5 32.3 Source: Jurovitz 2013. Reference see endnotes, Table 5. Hydro Power Wind onshore Wind offshore Solar PV Geothermal Solar thermal Ocean Biomass Biomass CHP

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