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REN21 10 Years Report

14 Renewable Energy in the Transport Sector: Fuel change and electrification Due to limited solutions, the transport sector is the most difficult sector to substitute fossil fuels for renewables. Energy efficiency, via smaller and lighter vehicles, transport mode changes from individual to public transport and the introduction of e-mobility paves the way increasing renewable energy supply in the trans- port sector. E-mobility however does not only mean electric vehicles, but also electric powered trains, subways, buses and taxis. Throughout the world, there are limited but increasing ini- tiatives to link electric transport systems with renewable energy, particularly at the city and regional levels. BIOENERGY for the transport energy Liquid biofuels met around 2.3% of total transport fuel demand in 2013, with small but increasing use by the aviation and marine sectors. By the end of 2013 use of liquid biofuels has increased by a factor of three compared to 2004 levels. Global production of fuel ethanol grew steadily from 32.6 billion liters in 2004 to116.5 billion liters in 2013. For the past four years, annual production of liquid biofuels has remained roughly equal to 2010 levels. New ethanol and biodiesel production facilities opened in recent years, although many ethanol plants continue to operate below capacity.

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