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REN21 10 Years Report

13 01 The Sleeping Giants: Renewables for heating and cooling While renewable power generation continues to enjoy double- digit growth rates, renewable heating and cooling technologies have grown at a much slower rate. This is partly due to the small- scale nature of this sector as well as the multiple, decision-mak- ing processes primarily at the household level. More complex and therefore fewer renewable energy support policies have also hindered growth in this sector (see Chapter 5 on Lessons Learned). Slow growth in this sector is also a result of an increas- ing number of applications where heat is produced with electric- ity, e.g. through the use of heat pumps. Moreover, increases in high energy efficient buildings and passive solar architecture reduce heat demand. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY for heating and power generation Geothermal resources provided an estimated 805 PJ (223 TWh) of renewable energy in 2013, delivering two-thirds as direct heat and the remainder as electricity and representing an increase of a factor of five compared to 2004. While the expansion of geo- thermal power generation is only in six countries—United States, Philippines, Indonesia, Mexico, Italy and New Zealand—the use of ground-source heat pumps is growing rapidly in a number of countries and reached an estimated 91 GWth of capacity in 2013. Despite two-thirds of global capacity being located in the United States, China, Sweden, Germany, and Japan at least 78 countries currently tap geothermal resources for direct heat. Geothermal electric generating capacity grew by an estimated 456 MW during 2013, bringing the global total to 12 GW and gen- erating at least 76 TWh. SOLAR THERMAL HEATING AND COOLING By the end of 2013, global solar thermal capacity reached an estimated 326 GWth for all collector types, with glazed water collectors representing around 90% of the total installed capacity and a factor six increase compared to 2004. China accounted for 86% of the world market for solar thermal heating technologies by end 2013 and 64% of the total installed capacity (283.4 GWth). Solar space heating and cooling are gaining ground, as are solar thermal district heating, solar cooling, and process heat systems. The industry continues to face challenges, particularly in Europe, and was, throughout the last, several years, marked by acquisitions and mergers among leading players, with rapid consolidation continuing in China. Automation of manufacturing processes increased in 2013, with, in parallel, innovation spanning from adhesives to materials and beyond. BIOMASS for heat and power Use of biomass in the heat, power, and transport sectors increased 20% over the past 10 years to an estimated 55.6 EJ. Heating accounted for the vast majority of biomass use, including traditional biomass. Between 2004 and 2014 modern biomass heat capacity rose about 73 GWth to an estimated 296 GWth. The last decade also saw global bio-power capacity grow from 39 GW in 2004 to approximately 88 GW, with notable increases in some BRICS countries. Over the course of 2013 an estimated 405 TWh of electricity were generated from biomass. Current demand for modern biomass is driving increased international trade, particularly for biofuels and wood pellets. Global production and transport of wood pellets exceeded 23.6 million tons in 2013 compared to around 4.5 in 2004. Figure 5: Hydropower and Ocean Energy Installations Globally 147GW 160GW 194GW 13GW 300GW 69GW 42GW 25GW 50GW Figure 5: Hydro Power Capacity in the World, 2014 Hydro Power in GW North America 194 Latin America 160 Europe and Russia 147 Africa 25 Middle East 13 India 42 Southeast Asia 50 China 300 Oceania 69 World total 1,000 GW

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