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REN21 10 Years Report

12 71GW 1GW 0.1GW 92GW 121GW 20GW 7GW5GW WIND POWER By the end of 2013 cumulative global wind capacity was 318 GW, an increase of 270 GW since 2004. However in 2013, after more than 20 years of steady growth, the annual wind market dropped for the first time; down 10 GW to 35.5 GW. This decline was due primarily to the steep drop in US installations, from 13 GW in 2012, to just over 1 GW in 2013. The failure of the US Congress to re-authorise the US Production Tax Credit, which expired end- 2012, effectively killed the 2013 market. The United States— which was the largest global market from 2006 to 2008 and in 2012—fell to sixth place behind Canada. However it is likely that it will rise again in 2014; this time to second place behind China. Elsewhere wind power is expanding. While the roots of the modern wind power industry are in Denmark, Germany and the United States, 2004 saw the wind market spread. From 2004 to 2010 China doubled its wind installations annually from 0.5 GW to 19 GW. It led in annual, yearly installations (except in 2012) and held the top spot in 2011 in terms of cumulative installations. Although the Chinese market dipped to just below 13 GW in 2012, it grew to 16 GW in 2013 and is back on an upward trajectory. In addition to Europe, China, and the United States, Canada, Brazil andIndiahavebecomeimportantmarketswithMexicoandSouth Africa growing rapidly. Falling prices due to high competition and technology improvements make wind power an economically feasible power generation technology competing directly with heavily subsidised fossil fuels in an increasing number of mar- kets. As of 2014 over 240,000 wind turbines are operating in more than 90 countries. HYDRO POWER An estimated 285 GW of new hydropower capacity came on-line between 2004 and the end of 2013, increasing global installed capacity from 715 GW to an estimated 1000 GW. Hydropower generation increased from 2,900 TWh to an estimated 3,700 TWh of electricity during 2012. Global power demand increased accordingly, keeping hydropower’s share of the global electric- ity supply at 16%. China led in terms of capacity additions, with the majority of other installations appearing in Turkey, Brazil, Vietnam, and Russia. Joint-venture business models involving local and international partnerships are becoming increasingly prominent as the size of projects and the capacity of hydropower technologies increase. There is also increasing recognition of the potential for hydropower to complement other renewable tech- nologies, such as variable wind and solar power. OCEAN ENERGY Ocean energy is still at an early stage of development and can be compared to the state of the wind industry in the early 1980. Ocean energy remains a wild card in the renewable power generation portfolio. There are currently numerous designs available with a correspondingly low standardisation rate; two clear indicators of how young the sector is. Commercial ocean energy capacity was roughly 527 MW by the end of 2013. The tidal power facility in the north of France represents by far the largest part of installed capacity; small-scale projects have been deployed in the United States and Portugal. Governments and regional authorities continued to support ocean energy research and development, while major power corporations increased their presence in the sector, which is seeing measured but steady progress. Figure 4: Wind Power Capacity in the World, 2014 Wind Power in GW North America 71 Latin America 5 Europe and Russia 121 Africa 1 Middle East 0.1 India 20 Southeast Asia 0.5 China 92 Oceania 7 World total 318 GW

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